Involve the binding of extracellular signaling

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Involve the binding of extracellular signaling molecules and ligands to receptors located on the cell or inside the cell 1. Trigger events or invoke a response 2. Can alter cell’s metabolism, shape, and gene expression 55) Relate the function of second messengers to signal transduction pathways a. cAMP i. Plays a role in signal transduction pathways ii. Reversible once the signal is degraded iii. Example: 1. Fight or flight hormone
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a. Epinephrine enhances the function of enzymes that increase glycogen breakdown and inhibits enzymes that cause glycogen synthesis iv. Amplify the signal and increase the speed of pathways 56) Understand hormone receptors a. Hormones (like epinephrine) exert different effects throughout the body b. Depends on the set of proteins a cell makes i. Amounts of these proteins are controlled by differential gene regulation 57) Outline the apoptosis pathway a. Process of programmed cell death in which the nucleus and cytoskeleton break down and eventually the cell breaks apart into blebs i. Irregularities in apoptosis are associated with some diseases b. Occurs via extrinsic or intrinsic ways i. Extrinsic: stimulated when an extracellular signaling molecule binds to death receptors
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  • Fall '19
  • Enzyme, Adenosine triphosphate

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