Ethnic conflict really about powermoney but dressed in ethnic clothing For

Ethnic conflict really about powermoney but dressed

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-Ethnic conflict “really” about power/money but dressed in ethnic clothing-For politicians, ethnicity is an easy way to get votesCriticism: Ethnic identities are more stable than instrumentalist theories predictWilkinson-Ethnic riots are often planned by politicians for electoral purposes-Electoral incentives determine if state governments will prevent communal violence-More Party competition = More incentive to appeal to minority voters-Muslims have become a useful political ally = Less Hindu-Muslim conflict-Town-level electoral incentives account for WHERE Hindu-Muslim violence occurs-State-level electoral incentives account for WHERE and WHEN state governments use police force to prevent riotsBates-Ethnicity is a choice that people for economic, political reasons-Flexible
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-With modernity, people compete for scarce goods, use ethnicity in competition -Wealthier groups tend to be better-educated, and more urbanized, envied and feared-Ethnic competition breaks out when groups must compete for places in the class,status, and power systems of the new nation.-Ethnic conflict is all about money and power, not deep-rooted hatreds/tensionsSocial Constructivism(Sub-category ofConstructionism)-Ethnicity is not a strategic choice, but rather socially constructed-Identities are taken from families and communities and change at the margin-Identities are institutionalized and organized-Ethnicity is “sticky” – it changes, but slowly -Less fixed than constructionists but less fluid than instrumentalistsCriticism: Limited predictive powerNagel-Ethnic nationalism is not the stuff of primordial, genetic, ancient differences, but is a child of the modern world-Ethnic change and develop, become more, less important over timeEthnic/culturalcleavages alone Notenough to produceethnic violenceBrown-Underlying factors vs. Proximate Factors-Scenarios:-Factors that cause internal conflict that are there already-Factors that are ignited, new in starting conflict (economic issues ex.)-Can’t discount factor of elite for leadership (voluntarism)StructuralismRwanda (according to Levitsky)-Fear and insecurity is necessary for ethnic conflict- Physical fear—the fear that one is not safe from violence—is biggest factor-Causes for this fear: -Absence of: cross-ethnic cleavages, effective + neutral state
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-Infrastructure necessary for ethnic conflict-If elements of the state are captured by an ethnic group, that group’s capacity for violence is increased enormously – necessary for large-scale violence-Mass media control helps greatly in pushing people to fear and insecurity-All of this occurred in case of Rwanda
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