It would be beneficial to use the collaborative

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shares equal parts in resolving the students presenting problems (Erford, 2019). It would be beneficial to use the collaborative interdependent model when developing a collaborative model for school counseling. The collaborative model engages both students and school personnel to involve the community with creating and implementing programs. Counselors can also work together with the school and families to strength their relationship by involving all parties to actively engage in the student’s education (Erford, 2019). In collaborative consolation, the school counselor becomes familiar with the different agencies together to create positive outcomes for the student (Erford, 2019). 3. When comparing consultation and collaboration, consultation is a process, and collaboration refers to how people interact during the process (Erford, 2019). As per ASCA, collaboration is from experts (ASCA, 2019). According to Erford (2019), Collaborating is voluntary and involves all parties, while Consultation involves only three parties: the consultant, consultee, and the
client. Efficacious consultation in the school involves problem solving, and the ability to form collaborative relationships (Erford, 2019). Component #3 Systems and Academic Focused 1. When there is a need for change, school counselors can use the systems-focused program. The system-focused program will help the school, parents and families, and the community to understand and use the principle of system theory, because this approach will address the policies and procedural barriers to access achievement and attainment (Erford, 2019). The school counselor role as a system change agent can advocate for equity against different policies that contribute to the gaps in achievement, opportunity, attainment, and funding (Erford, 2019). To achieve academic success, data through pre and post tests can aid in monitoring the progress of the student, identify difficulties or discipline problems, identify learning barriers, understand factors affecting behavior, identify issues with equity access, close achievement gaps, and improve student services (Erford, 2019). The National Education Association (NEA) conducts ongoing research on achievement gaps, and they consider the best strategies to closing the gaps (Harold Research, 2017). Efficient strategies closing achievement gaps at stakeholder levels enhances cultural competence, comprehensive support for students, outreach to students’ families, extended learning opportunities, classrooms that support learning, supportive schools, strong district support, access to qualified staff and adequate resources and funding (National Education Association, 2019). Factors that prevent students dropping out of school are by having supportive teachers, positive attitudes from teachers and administrators, tutoring services, more time in general education for students with disabilities, improvements in curriculum and instruction (Erford, 2019). A way to reduce a dropout for students is by enhancing students’ sense of belonging in school, develop relationships with teachers, administrators, and peers, improvement with academic success;

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