In fact sex workers in countries such as thailand or

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Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions
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1997). In fact, sex workers in countries such as Thailand or South Africa are many times
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Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions
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Chapter 7 / Exercise 04
Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions
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Sexual Coercion and Resiliency more likely to contract HN than other people, especially if they work in hotels or other tourist places (Gazi, 2009). The concept of survival sex, meaning people who sell their bodies for basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, is evident in a growing number of countries around the world (Correa et al., 2009; Greene et al., 1999). For example, in South Africa, poor women face the grim reality of selling their bodies or having their children go hungry, and so they sell their bodies to survive (Correa et al., 2009; Preston-Whyte, 2000). To some extent this is also happening with men and boys who turn to sex work to survive (Padilla, 2007). Whenever war or armed conflict occur in impoverished areas, survival sex also increases, and sexual violence and abuse soon follow (Long, 1997). Refugee women and children, in particular, may engage in survival sex, as was reported among the 1.5 million Iraqis who fled to Syria when the United States invaded in 2003 (Harper, 2008). Sex Work and Rights Countries differ dramatically in how they handle sex work and the rights of sex work- ers. Historically, sex work was regarded not only as immoral but also as illegal, and sex workers were routinely arrested, jailed, and blackmailed, and generally had no rights at all (Bernstein, 2008). Many countries still criminalize prostitution and sex work. Sex workers are randomly arrested, beaten, or sexually abused-in short, denied the most basic of all human rights, to survive with dignity (Correa et al., 2009). Even in the United States, all states except Nevada generally regard all sex work as illegal and prosecute people who are caught either providing sex for sale or partaking in it. The laws in Nevada about sex work are complex, but they do allow some of it. In some places, people are sex workers of their own free choice; in other places, peo- ple are forcibly abducted and made to practice sex work (Bernstein, 2008). In places where the latter occurs, the rights of sex workers may be very diminished or nonexistent. Research also suggests that a variety of forces, including war and refugee insecurity, may contribute to the increase in sex work through exploitation of refugees and migrants. Even the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the United States, which make it much more difficult to secure legal immigration status in this and other countries, may be contribut- ing to this increase (Correa et al., 2009). One place where sex work is legal is The Netherlands. In The Netherlands sex work has been legal within certain boundaries since the 17th century, when the Dutch govern- ment began to control the business by protecting sex workers and their patrons. Their desire to control sex work developed from at least three factors in Dutch culture: (1) an attitude toward sex that moved it away from being sinful with a religious foundation to handling it as a social issue; (2) the attitude that sex is normal and natural and that it's dif-

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