Railroads bringing rural populations to cities

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railroads bringing rural populations to cities factories aren’t seasonal like farms get paid either way 11
o immigration By 1900 about 1/10 th of the American population owned and controlled 9/10 th of the nations wealth Individual vs. Big Business - businesses could hire scabs o scabs: people willing to cross a picket line to come and work o productivity never goes down so the strike is ineffective - federal court system ruled in favor of business o triangle fire: women went to court o woman was charged with assaulting the officer - “ironclad oaths” and “yellow dog” contracts o ironclad oaths: things you sign before you begin work that says you pledge to not join a union o yellow dog: if you have signed a contract that you go back on you’re a yellow dog - blacklists o if you attempted to strike you would be put on a list and given to all the other businesses - company towns o towns where everyone works for the company and in turn they pay you and give you housing o script: company money used to pay for your living fees The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 - railroads first big business to confront large-scale labor issues o employed a lot of people o many had professional skills engineers firemen brakemen - major railroads announced a 10% wage cut - US was in the middle of a recession at this time - Workers walked off the job in an unplanned strike o Work stoppage disrupted train traffic across west Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and ohio - president hayes called out federal troops o workers went back to work - the impact of the railroad strike: membership of knights of labor grew The Knights of Labor - membership grew after Great Railroad Strike - wanted the government to involve itself in protecting the working people of the country - 1848: Communist Manifesto (Marx & Engels) o people thought the workers were communists coming to take over 12
- 1886: more than 700,000 members across the country - Reached out to all sections of the working population o Skilled workers o Agricultural workers o Women o Black The Emergence of Urban America The growth of cities in the late 19 th century - westward movement was an urban movement o Chicago: one of the most vibrant and important cities in the united states o Houston o San Francisco: growth in large part due to chinese immigrants The “New Immigrants” - mainly from southern and eastern Europe - clashed with native-born Americans or earlier immigrants o different language o different customs and traditions o different religion orthodox catholic jewish - 1870-1890 net immigration totaled 7.5 million people o coming mainly from southern and eastern Europe - Nativism - Xenophobia - American Protective Association o Anti- Catholic o Operated mostly in the states of the upper Mississippi valley Heavily protestant If immigrants were coming into the us, they tended to move to the upper valley - Chinese Exclusive Act (1882) o Barred any and all immigration into the US for 10 years o Institutionalizes prejudice by legislating restriction

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