punishment or hitting them. After spending a day around white people, I was always happy to go back to the reservation where people followed a relaxed yet respectful code of relating with each other….”
Third Wave – Modern Indigenous Activism Debra White Plume (Wounded Knee veteran) 2011, Resistance to Tar Sands Pipeline: https:// Regina Brave, Lakota elder, 2011: https:// Standing Rock, Aug 2016: https:// - 4&list=PLp1hW5w4fofOaqwdviHRolggDU NV4wXU9
INDIGENOUS FEMINISMS Third Wave author Andrea Smith (2011): “Indigenous feminism without apology” “ We often hear the mantra in indigenous communities that Native women aren’t feminists. Supposedly, feminism is not needed because Native women were treated with respect prior to colonization. Thus, any Native woman who calls herself a feminist is often condemned as being “white.” "However, when I started interviewing Native women organizers as part of a research project, I was surprised by how many community-based activists were describing themselves as “feminists without apology.” They were arguing that feminism is actually an indigenous concept that has been co-opted by white women. "The fact that Native societies were egalitarian 500 years ago is not stopping women from being hit or abused now. For instance, in my years of anti-violence organizing, I would hear, “We can’t worry about domestic violence; we must worry about survival issues first.” But since Native women are the women most likely to be killed by domestic violence, they are clearly not surviving. So when we talk about survival of our nations, who are we including ?
Third Wave author Andrea Smith (2 011): “Indigenous feminism without apology” “Re: 1st, 2nd, 3rd waves: “This periodization situates white middle-class women as the central historical agents to which women of colour attach themselves. However, if we were to recognize the agency of indigenous women in an account of feminist history, we might begin with 1492 when Native women collectively resisted colonization. This would allow us to see that there are multiple feminist histories emerging from multiple communities of colour which intersect at points and diverge in others. This would not negate the contributions made by white feminists, but would de- center them from our historicizing and analysis.”
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