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Settar, S. 2003, “Footprints of Artisans in Indian History: Some Reflections on Early Artisans of India,” Proceedings of the Indian History Congress,General President’s Address, 64thsession, Mysore, pp. 1-43. Shah, Priyabala, ed., 1958. Citrasutra of the Visnudharmottara Purana, third khanda,Baroda. Singh, Upinder, 2009. A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: from the Stone Age to the 12thcentury,Delhi: Pearson Longman. Spink, Walter, 2005-2007. Ajanta: History and Development, Vols. I to V,Leiden and Boston: Brill. Williams, Joanna G. 1982. The Art of Gupta India: Empire and Province, Princeton University Press. Willis, Michael, 2009. The Archaeology of Hindu Ritual: Temples and the establishment of the gods, Cambridge University Press. Zimmer, Heinrich. 1984. Artistic Form and Yoga in the Sacred Images of India,Princeton: Princeton University Press.
EARLY INDIAN SOCIAL ORDERS: STRUCTURES AND PROCESSES 1.Historiography of early Indian social orders. 2.From pre-class to class societies -- origins of social differentiations – the material and textual manifestations; problem of terminologies – jana, vish, vrata, gana, varna, jati, jnati, gotra, mula, pravara, anvaya,vamsha, etc. 3. Forces of production, forms of property and social formations; Regional variations. 4. Vana, kshetraand social formations. 5. Varnas, jatisand marriages; Kama and Reproduction. 6. The ashrama dharma, with special reference to renunciation. 7. Elements of ‘radicalism’ in social philosophies of ‘non-Brahmanical’ systems; renouncers, householders and centres of power. 8. The ‘foreigner’ and mutations in social orders. 9. Stages in the history of the Untouchables. 10. Social stratification and legal systems, with special reference to inheritance rights. 11. Religious rites and constructions of gender relations. Select Readings: Beteille, Andre:Chronicles of Our Time, 2000. Bougle, Celestin: Essays on the Caste System, tr. D.F.Pocock, 1971. Bhattacharya, S.C.: Some Aspects of Indian Society: From c.2ndCentury BC to c. 4thCentury AD, 1978. Chakravarti, Uma:Social Dimensions of Early Buddhism, 1987. Chakravarti, Uma : Everyday Lives, Everyday Histories: Beyond the Kings and Brahmans of ‘Ancient’ India, 2006. Chanana, Devraj: Slavery in Ancient India, 1960. Choudhary, Radhakrishna: Vratyas in Ancient India,1964. Derrett, J.Duncan: Essays in Classical and Modern Hindu Law, 1977. Dumont, Louis: Homo Hierarchicus: The Caste System and Its Implications, revd. ed. 1980. Ghurye, G.S.: Caste and Class in India, 1957. Ghurye, G.S.:Family and Kin in Indo-European Culture, 2nded., 1962. Gupta, Chitrarekha: The Kayasthas: A Study in the Formation and early History of the Caste, 1996. Gurukkal, Rajan: Social Formations of Early South India, 2010. Jaiswal, Suvira: Caste: Origin, Function and Dimensions of Change, 1998. Jha, D.N. ed.,: Society and Ideology in India, Essays in Honour of Professor R.S.Sharma, 1996.