Consumers, channels, and evaluating the result. Encoding : means converting the sender's ideas into a message, which could be verbal, visual or both. Done by an advertising agency . & marketing department for transmitter Noise : refers to any interference that stems from competing messages, a lack of clarity in the message, or a flaw in the medium (poor choice of medium). Communication Process: ( Bottom Left Pic) How Consumers perceive communication? Receivers decode messages differently, Senders adjust messages according to the medium and receivers traits. Note: Marketers must remember that they do not have control over the decoding process, because each receiver decodes the message in his or her own way. AIDA Model: stages that consumer goes through after seeing a marketing effort. Series of mental stages. AKA think, feel, do. ( Bottom Middle Pic) Lagged Effect: Advertising does not always have an immediate impact . Multiple exposures are often necessary . It is difficult to determine which exposure led to purchase. When consumers don’t immediately act after receiving marketing communications. “Julia is driving down interstate 95” “one of the difficulties in measuring” Integrated Marketing Communication Strategy (IMC): ( Bottom Right Pic) - Advertising: Most visible element of IMC . Extremely effective at creating awareness and generating interest - Public Relations: “Free” media attention. Importance of PR has grown as cost of other media has increased . Consumers becoming more skeptical about marketing, PR becoming more important . (Press & supplying written content for news and feature articles). “a firm that places emphasis on developing” “from a consumer’s perspective” - Sales Promotions: Can be aimed at both end user consumers or channel members. Used in conjunction with other of IMC. Can be used for both short term and long-term objectives. Ex . Coupons, rebates, point-of-purchase displays, free samples. “Red Bull sends out student” - Direct Marketing: Growing element of IMC. Includes e-mail, direct mail, telemarketing, social media, and m-commerce. Good for multicultural groups. Database technology improves. Has received the greatest increase in aggregate spending recently. Also, it allows for personalization of the message. “The proliferation of new media” “The increased use of customer databases” “When purchasing books on Amazon.com, customers are shown” - Online Marketing: Websites, blogs, social media. Planning for and Measure IMC Success: Understand the outcome they hope to achieve. Short or long term. Should be explicitly defined and measured. Measuring Success Using Marketing Metrics: Frequency . Reach . Gross rating points . Web Tracking. - Search Engine Marketing: Clicks. Impressions. Click-through rate/( the number of impressions ). Return on investment (ROI) ( sales revenue and advertising cost ) . Setting and Allocating IMC Budget: - objective-and-task-method: budgeting method that determines the cost required to undertake specific tasks to accomplish communication objectives, choosing media and determining costs - rule-of-thumb methods:
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- Spring '08