are, influenced by your thoughts, actions, abilities, values, goals, and ideals Can shape your communication with others, what you think of other people because your perception of others is related to how you view yourself Ex. If honesty is important to you, then you will consider them important traits other people should have o Priority of traits is affected by self-concept and what traits you find important in yourself you find important in others o Two Types of Evidence that Builds onto Self-Concept: 1. Direct Evidence : comes in form of compliments, insults, support, or negative remarks Ex: Professor says you have good leadership you think leadership is a good quality now 2. Indirect Evidence : gossip, subtle nonverbal cues, lack of communication
Ex: asking friend what are your chances on American Idol and he changes subject think you are not a good singer o Social Comparison Theory : compare ourselves to others as we develop ideas about ourselves Can influence how we think about ourselves and what we’re willing to do to close the unavoidable gap created by this comparison Ex: how wealthy/poor you are compared to friends’ incomes (2) How You Feel About Yourself (evaluating the self) o Self-esteem : how you feel about yourself Set of attitudes that people hold about their own emotions, thoughts, abilities, skills, behavior, and beliefs that fluctuate according to the situation o Low self-esteem results from inaccurate information about yourself or not trusting information you possess (3) Assessing Your Own Abilities (predicting success) o Self-efficacy : the ability to predict one’s effectiveness in a communication situation from self-concept and self-esteem Your perceptions of self-efficacy guide your ultimate choice of communication situations, making you more likely to avoid situations where you believe your self- efficacy to be low o High self-efficacy leads to over confidence and failure o Low self-efficacy leads to lack of effort Interpreting Events Self-efficacy has an effect on your ability to cope with failure and stress o Low self-efficacy can cause you to dwell on shortcomings Snowball effect: failure, then low self esteem, then causes stress, then lower self-esteem, then low self-efficacy
High self-efficacy = when failure occurs, usually blames it on an external factor and not self o Less emotionally effected Self-Fulfilling Prophecies Self-Fulfilling Prophecy : a prediction that causes an individual to change behavior to make the prediction come true o Ex. Josh goes to a party thinking others don’t enjoy his company so he reassures that by standing alone in the corner Assessing Our Perceptions of Self (1) Self-Actualization: o Self-actualization (POSITIVE) : the feelings/thoughts you get when you know you have negotiated a communication situation as well as you possibly could Ex: Shelly is worried to confront a teacher about not answering e-mails, then confronts the teacher, the
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- Fall '07
- Nonverbal Communication, ex