SAR-39684-the-neurocircuitry-of-illicit-psychostimulant-addiction--an-_020713.pdf

Is thought to be more associated with the expression

Info icon This preview shows pages 3–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
is thought to be more associated with the expression of learned behaviors in response to rewarding stimuli, such as drug seeking. 26–30 Drug-induced elevations in extracellular DA in the NAc and other brain regions of the reward circuitry are modulated by numerous other neurotransmitter systems, including GABA, Glu, endogenous opioids and cannabinoids, 5-HT, NE, and various neuropeptides such as CRF. 15,16,25,31–33 Furthermore, these neurotransmitter systems A B DS NAc AMG VTA Frontal cortex HPC PFC HPC AMG VTA NAc Behavioral response DS Glu Glu Glu DA MSN MSN Dopamine GABA GABAergic Interneuron glutamate Figure 1 ( A and B ) Components of the principal reward neurocircuitries in the brain. ( A ) Neuroanatomical location of reward circuitry; ( B ) schematic of reward circuitry with primary neurotransmitter projections. Note: Frontal cortex includes prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and anterior cingulate cortex. Abbreviations: AMG, amygdala; DA, dopaminergic neurons; DS, dorsal striatum; GABA, γ -aminobutyric acid; Glu, glutamatergic neurons; HPC, hippocampus; MSN, medium spiny neurons; NAc, nucleus accumbens; PFC, prefrontal cortex; VTA, ventral tegmental area. submit your manuscript | Dove press Dove press 31 Neurocircuitry of illicit psychostimulant addiction Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation downloaded from by 71.51.178.127 on 08-Aug-2018 For personal use only. 1 / 1
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation 2013:4 can modulate psychostimulant intake and drug-seeking behavior. For example, various ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in both the NAc core and shell mediate context-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking. 34 Executive function and habit systems Prefrontal cortex The PFC is a key regulator of cognitive and emotional processes, and contains many functionally distinct subregions. The dorsolateral PFC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and anterior cingulate cortex are involved in salience attribution, decision- making, inhibition of inappropriate behaviors, behavioral and cognitive flexibility, and the regulation of emotion. 35–37 These regions of the PFC have dense populations of glutamatergic cell bodies with efferent pathways that synapse onto the same cell populations (ie, MSNs) in the NAc that receive dopaminergic afferents from the VTA. 38 In addition, glutamatergic efferents from the PFC also project to the AMG, VTA, DS, and indirectly to the HPC. 39–41 Thus, the PFC is situated to modulate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse and drug-seeking behavior, as well as relapse to drug taking. 42 The PFC coordinates the flexibility with which an organism adapts its goal-directed behavior at many stages in the addiction process, and is modulated by inputs from other cortical and subcortical regions. Dorsal striatum and cortical-basal ganglia loops Regions of the basal ganglia, which include the dorsal and ventral striatum, internal and external segments of the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, and dopaminergic cell bodies in the substantia nigra, are highly implicated not only in fine motor control but also in PFC function.
Image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern