Double-blind study: prevents researcher from having an influence on thesubject (the way they are talking, giving the medication). Therefore, theresearcher giving does not know which is which that he is giving.Randomized: in a particular group, you have a larger number of smokers, thiswill have an effect. You have to take only random people to cancel that effect.Meta-analysis:study of studyoVitamin D and cancer: there is a reduction in cancer in different types of cancer.
Chemistry of food Topic 2: Micronutrients and vitaminsTopic 2 – Lesson 1: Vitamins IVitamins are nutrients needed in small amount to prevent deficiency diseases. A balanced diet contains all the vitamins in the required amounts. 13 vitaminsoFat soluble: A, D, E, KCan be poisonous if consumed in large amountsoWater soluble: B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, CoVitamin B1: Thiamine - Vitamin B2: Riboflavin - Vitamin B3: Niacin - VitaminB5: Pantothenic Acid - Vitamin B6: Pyridoxine - Vitamin B7: Biotin - VitaminB9: Folic Acid (Folate) - Vitamin B12: Cobalamin (Cyanocobalamin)oNo continuity because some vitamins that we thought were, weren’t so removed = gapVitamins are marketing tools (ex: cereals, vitamin water) Price-fixing suit of vitamins: over 1.5 billion $ (USA)China: vitamin C makers price-fixing suitVitamin C is ascorbic acidoDiscovery voyages (15th-17thcenturies): scurvyoccurs, mouth bleeds, skin patches,legs swollen, flesh of the gums fell out, etc. oJacques Cartier cured his men with pine needle suggested by Indigenous people (fullof vitamin C)oVery present in cabbage oJames Lind (1753): recognized that scurvy could be prevented with the proper foods.They found that lime especially prevented scurvy. At first, they thought it was theacidity of the lime that cured scurvy. British sailors are called ‘limey’ because theydrank lime juice to prevent scurvy. oIn 1927, Albert Szent-Gyorgyi found vitamin C as the active ingredient in lime (NobelPrize Medicine in 1937) to prevent scurvyBeri-Beri appeared in South-East Asia (Indonesia): ‘I can’t, I can’t. People have trouble withtheir limbs.oChristian Eijkman (1880s): people switched from brown rice to white rice (taste andpreservation). Both the people and the chicken were fed with rice. By improving thequality of the rice (turning it white), it removed an important nutrient that prevents thedisease. He received the Noble Prize of Medicine in 1929. Very much later, we foundthat this active ingredient was vitamin B (thiamine). It was found in the 1930s. It tooksome time to isolate this molecule. Rickets:caused by a lack of vitamin D. Affected people who moved from rural to city andreceived more light (inside the factory, than outside in the sun). Vitamin D is present incertain oils (cod liver oil was given to prevent this).