The second criterion for diagnosing ASD has to do with repetitive, restrictive patterns of activities, interests, or behavior (CDC, 2018). This also encompasses several sets of deficits under the one heading (CDC, 2018). One set of deficits has to do with repetitive or stereotyped speech, use of objects, or motor movements; such as, flipping objects, lining up toys, echolalia, simple motor stereotypes, or idiosyncratic phrases (CDC, 2018). The second set of deficits has to do with insistence on sameness, ritualized patterns of nonverbal or verbal behaviors, or inflexible adherence to routines; such as, the need to eat the same food every day, the need to take the same route every day, extreme distress at small changes, rigid thinking patterns, difficulties with transition, and greeting rituals (CDC, 2018). The third set of deficits has to do with fixated, highly restricted interests which are abnormal in their focus or intensity; such as, preoccupation or strong attachment to unusual objects, and perseverative or excessively circumscribed interests (CDC, 2018). The fourth set of deficits has to do with unusual interest in sensory aspects of their environment, or hypo- or hyperactivity to
4sensory input; such as, apparent indifference to temperature or pain, adverse response to specific textures or sounds, excessive touching or smelling of objects, or visual fascination with movements or light (CDC, 2018). The third criterion for diagnosing ASD has to do with the symptoms being present duringthe early developmental period (CDC, 2018). Symptoms may not fully manifest until the individual’s social demands exceed their limited capacity, or they may be hidden through the use of learning strategies later in life (CDC, 2018). The fourth criterion for diagnosing ASD has to dowith the symptoms causing clinically significant impairment in occupational, social, or any otherimportant area the individual is functioning in (CDC, 2018). The fifth, and final, criterion for diagnosing ASD has to do with the disturbances not being better explained by global developmental delay, an intellectual disability or intellectual developmental disorder (CDC, 2018). ASD and intellectual disability co-occur frequently (CDC, 2018). In order to make the comorbid diagnosis, social communication would most likely be below what is expected for theirgeneral developmental level (CDC, 2018).Cognitive Therapeutic InterventionThe symptoms of ASD are complex in that they differ for each individual, that is why ASD is a spectrum disorder (CDC, 2018). Cognitive therapeutic interventions for individuals diagnosed with ASD are typically cognitive-behavioral therapies (Roberts-Collins et al., 2018). Itis important that the individual diagnosed with ASD to have as little pressure on them as possible(Roberts-Collins et al., 2018). Thus, the cognitive-behavioral therapies used should be aimed at limiting anxiety and depression (Roberts-Collins et al., 2018). Emotion recognition training, or
5emotion awareness, is a cognitive-behavioral therapy that is aimed at limiting the emotional problems experienced by individuals with ASD (Roberts-Collins et al., 2018).
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- Fall '19
- Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, autism spectrum