Strengthen to power of the ruler xunzi visited qin

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strengthen to power of the rulerXunzi visited Qin, and noted that thepeople were in awe of their officials andthe officials were sincere46
9/10/208Qin Shihuang, the First EmperorTraditional views:Despotic rulerMegalomaniacRevisionist views:Unifier and Modernizer (Mao)Why?Hostile Han-dynasty sourcesSima Qian司⾺遷(d. ca. 90 BC),Records of the Grand Historian47Unification in 221 BCEKing Ying Zheng嬴政(259-210 BCE)Aided by two ministers:Li Si李斯(d. 208 BCE)Lü Buwei呂不韋(d. 235 BCE)Conquered Han, Zhao, Wei, Chu, Yan,and Qi between 230-221 BCEAmbitious: “Wherever human life isfound, all acknowledge my empire’ssovereignty”48AccomplishmentsUnification of the scriptStandard weights and measuresBuilding the Great Wall of China tokeep out the nomads, specificallythe Xiongnu匈奴(more on themlater)Divided Qin into commanderiesrather than fiefdoms49Traumatic eventsBurning of the books (213 BC)Burying of the scholars (~460 of them?)Li Si complained that scholars were using past writing to criticize QinpolicyWere books burned or just centralized?Was this a blanket suppression of intellectuals?50A whole world within a tomb700,000 conscripts “dug throughsubterranean streams andpoured molten copper for theouter coffin, and the tomb wasfilled with models of palaces,pavilions, and offices, as well asfine vessels, precious stones,and rarities.”51A whole world within a tomb“All the country’s streamsand the Yellow and YangziRivers were reproduced inquicksilver (mercury) andby some mechanicalmeans made to flow into aminiature ocean…”52
9/10/209Death of First EmperorChaos at courtRebellion in the countryside209 BCE, a group of peasants was delayed by rain for frontier service, sodecided to become outlaws rather than face deathCivil War (officially over by 206 BCE)53Expansion, and its implications for ideas of “us” and“them”54The Han dynasty is foundedCivil war (ca. 210-202 BCE; founding of Han in 206 BCE)Two contenders (both from Chu):Liu Bang劉邦(d. 194 BC)àGaozu, first emperor of HanXiang Yu項羽(fl. 232-202 BC)Liu Bang was a low-level Qin official of humble originHe was in charge of a post officeXiang Yu was a Chu nobleman55Liu Bang (r. 206 -194), or Gaozu高祖Pressure to move away fromcentralization, which wasassociated with tyrannyCreated a mixed system of semi-autonomous kingdoms ruled bybrothers, sons, & friendsNeeded to reward people for helpduring the war with Xiang YuPartialmove away from the highlycentralized system of the Qin56Han kingdoms & central governmentHan in 195 BCHan in 154 BC57Emperor Wu (r. 140-87 BCE)Centralizer & expansionistCredited with destroying theautonomy of the kingdoms•Sometimes credited withmaking Confucianism stateorthodoxy, rather thanlegalism• Aggressive military policies indealing with the Xiongnu in theNorthwestAggressive economic policy toredistribute wealth & raise fundsfor Xiongnu wars58
9/10/201059iClicker questionChinese rulers and thinkers of the Qin and Han agreed that a highly-centralized and unified empire was a desirable end

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