A for each property identify and define the property

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(a) for each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. (b) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. Proteins – large complex molecules – are major building blocks of all living organisms. Discuss the following in relation to proteins. (a) The chemical composition and levels of structure of proteins. (b) The roles of DNA and RNA in protein synthesis. (c) The roles of proteins in membrane structure and transport of molecules across the membrane. Water is important for all living organisms. The functions of water are directly related to its physical properties. (a) Describe how the properties of water contribute to TWO of the following. * transpiration * thermoregulation in endotherms * plasma membrane structure (b) Water serves as a reactant and a product in the carbon cycle. Discuss the role of water in the carbon cycle. (c) Discuss the impact of one human activity on the water cycle. Proteins functioning as enzymes exhibit precise specifications. Discuss the levels of structural organization within proteins which are responsible for specific molecular interaction. Carbon is a very important element in living systems. (a) Describe the various characteristics of the carbon atom that makes possible the building of a variety of biological molecules. (b) Explain how reactions involving carbon-containing compounds can contribute to the greenhouse effect. (c) The following structures are examples of two different categories of biological compounds. Describe how each category of compounds is important to the structure and function of living systems. Category I Category II The physical structure of a protein often reflects and affects its function. a) Describe THREE types of chemical bonds/interactions found in proteins. For each type, describe its role in determining protein structure. b) Discuss how the structure of a protein affects the function of TWO of the following. Muscle regulation Regulation of enzyme activity Cell signaling c) Abnormal hemoglobin is the identifying characteristic of sickle cell anemia. Explain the genetic basis of the abnormal hemoglobin. Explain why the sickle cell allele is selected for in certain areas of the world.
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