Both articles seep out the application of logos in order to support their argument. For example, Cullington adds a striking fact, “Researchers had hypothesized that texting and the use of abbreviations would have a negative impact on the spelling abilities of the students. However, they found that the results did not support their hypothesis” (135). It has been demonstrated by
Bardales 3 professionals that although texting is used on a daily basis, ultimately, it did not take the effect that was previously predicted. This example fully advocates the author’s argument that texting does not affect the efficiency of writing. In a like manner, Carr involves, “A recently published study of online research habits, conducted by scholars from University College London, suggests that we may well be in the midst of a sea change in the way we read and think” (737). Carr then explains how the research was conducted and why it supported his argument. Carr had previously mentioned that he has experienced a recession in his ability read after his long exposure to the internet. In addition to the application of logos, both articles used pathos. Carr uses this rhetorical device when explaining Friedrich Nietzsche. Carr states, “His vision was failing, and keeping his eyes focused on a page had become exhausting and painful [...] The machine had a subtler effect on his work. One of Nietzsche's friends, a composer, noticed a change in the style of writing” (739). As a reader, reading about an artist’s inability to construct their work is sorrowful. In comparison to Carr, Cullington added “As Crystal points out, children who struggle with literacy will not choose to use a technology that requires them to do something difficult for them” (132).