Preganglionic neurons travel along cranial nerves iii

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Preganglionic neurons travel along cranial nerves (III, VII, IX, and X) and spinal nerves to form pelvic splanchnic nerves that synapse with postganglionic neurons at terminal ganglia. Effects: short lived & widespread than that of the sympathetic nervous system Terminal ganglia – near or inside visceral organs Primary concern is with the processes involving energy expenditure. Reflex Arc: Receptor sensory neuron integrating center 2 autonomic motor neurons visceral neuron
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5 Pre-ganglionic (first neuron); Post-ganglionic or ganglionic (second neuron) o The preganglionic (cell body in the brain or spinal cord) o The postganglionic (cell body and dendrites located in an autonomic ganglion where it synapses with preganglionic axons) Agonist – substance that binds to & activates receptor, mimicking effect of neurotransmitter or hormone Antagonist – substance that binds to and blocks a receptor, thereby preventing a neurotransmitter or hormone from exerting its effect. Permissive – allows one hormone to do their job, hormone comes to prepare & stimulate the arrival of another. Synergistic – two hormones work together Up-Regulation – process of cells making more receptors to respond to a hormone. Down-Regulation – process of removing receptors Hormones depend on whether there are enough receptors to accept it or not Hormones only affect specific target cells that have receptors to recognize & bind to given hormone Circulating hormones enter the bloodstream; local hormones act on neighboring cells Endocrine Glands: No ducts, release hormones directly into the bloodstream Adrenal glands, parathyroid Glands, Pineal gland, Pituitary gland, Thyroid gland. Hormone-secreting tissue: Adipose tissue, Heart, Hypothalamus, Kidneys, Liver, Ovaries, Pancreas, Placenta, Skin, Small Intestine, Stomach, testes, & Thymus
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6 Lipid- Soluble Steroid HormonesAldosterone, Cortisol, Androgens From the Adrenal Cortex. Calcitriol From the Kidneys Testosterone From the Testes Estrogens, Progesterone From the Ovaries Thyroid Hormones T3 (triiodothyronine) From the Thyroid Gland (Follicular cells) T4 (Thyroxine) From the Thyroid Gland (Follicular cells) Gas Nitric Oxide From the Endothelial cells lining blood vessels
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7 Primarily under the control of the Hypothalamus (all the inhibiting and releasing hormones – see Table 18.3) What is a portal system? Can you describe the function and flow of the Hypophyseal Portal System?
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9 Actions of Thyroid Hormones: Increase basal metabolic rate Stimulate synthesis of Na + /K + ATPase Increase body temperature (calorigenic effect) Stimulate protein synthesis Increase the use of glucose and fatty acids for ATP production Stimulate lipolysis
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10 Enhance some actions of catecholamines Regulate development and growth of nervous tissue and bones
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14 Hormones Synthesis & Secretion: Hypothalamus Hormone Target Organ Function Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone GHRH Anterior Pituitary Gland Triggers release of hGH from Anterior Pituitary
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