Articles Research based on pain management and control Articles Research focused on mental disorders, arthritis, and as well as obesity. Patients aged who are 18 years and above Patients aged less than 18 years (not
Adults in the Critical Care Unit 16 (adults) adults) Under-aged patients, minors Articles on nurses experience in the ICU Articles on nurses in non-ICU settings such as mid-wifely, pediatrics, mental health, maternity, clinics, and the mentally ill. GP surgeries. Primary research articles published between 2006- 2017 (current articles) Secondary research articles published before 2006 ( not current articles older than 10 years ) Peer-reviewed Not peer-reviewed Patients with previous pain experiences. Patients without previous pain experiences and are not in pain. Source: Author 2.6 Justification for Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria This section provides the reasons behind the factors used in the inclusion/exclusion criteria as shown in Table 2 above. To begin with, the author opted to only include those articles whose research was carried out in hospital settings instead of in non-hospital settings such as nursing schools or in military institutions. Hospital settings was preferred over the other settings because the study encompassed a review of adults in critical care units (ICUs) which are only based in hospitals, hence more relevant to the given topic at hand. Secondly, the results were further narrowed down to only those articles which focused on pain management or pain control and not on other healthcare aspects such as mental disorders, arthritis, or obesity; since the latter are not a keyword in the current topic. Also, considerable attention was paid to the period within which the articles were published. Only articles published from 2006 to 2016 were chosen since they are more current, thus contain more updated content than their secondary counterparts, which were published before 2006. Also, the preference of peer-reviewed articles stemmed from the fact that they are more authentic and valid since they are reviewed by several experts in that field besides the expert who wrote it (Weller , 2002 , p. 322 ). After completion of the search, and considering the relevance of the articles to the research question, the list was narrowed down to 7 articles on the
Adults in the Critical Care Unit 17 basis of relevance . Table 4 below demonstrates the results of the search before and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. (See Table 5 below). Table 5: The Narrowing Down of the Search Results from Database Searched Results Inclusion/ Exclusion Criteria CINAHL Complete Magonline Library 620 64 15 PubMed RCN Library 600 27,351 11 British Nursing Index (BNI) Ovid Library 3020 24 24 TOTAL 4240 27,439 50 Source: Author After application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria as demonstrated in Table 3 5 above, the number of articles reduced were 64 from 4240 to 50 articles. Magonline (Appendix 2), 27,351 from RCN (Appendix 3), and 24 from Ovid library (Appendix 4). However, 50 articles were still quite many, therefore, a further elimination process was conducted. During the elimination
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