The settled rule is that tax laws must be construed

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document and that no tax may be imposed on a pawn ticket. The settled rule is that tax laws must be construed in favor of the taxpayer and strictly against the government; and that a tax cannot be imposed without clear and express words for that purpose. Taking our bearing from the foregoing doctrines, we scrutinized Section 195 of the NIRC, but there is no way that said provision may be interpreted in favor of petitioner. Section 195 unqualifiedly subjects all pledges to DST. It states that "[o]n every x x x pledge x x x there shall be collected a documentary stamp tax x x x." It is clear, categorical, and needs no further interpretation or construction. The explicit tenor thereof requires hardly anything than a simple application. x x x In the instant case, there is no law specifically and expressly exempting pledges entered into by pawnshops from the payment of DST. Section 199 of the NIRC enumerated certain documents which are not subject to stamp tax; but a pawnshop ticket is not one of them. Hence, petitioner's nebulous claim that it is not subject to DST is without merit. It cannot be over-emphasized that tax exemption represents a loss of revenue to the government and must, therefore, not rest on vague inference. Exemption from taxation is never presumed. For tax exemption to be recognized, the grant must be clear and express; it cannot be made to rest on doubtful implications. Under the principle of stare decisis et non quieta movere (follow past precedents and do not disturb what has been settled), once a case has been decided one way, any other case involving exactly the same point at issue, as in the case at bar, should be decided in the same manner. 36 WHEREFORE, the petition is PARTIALLY GRANTED. The Decision dated June 7, 2006 and Resolution dated August 14, 2006 of the Court of Tax Appeals En Banc is MODIFIED to the effect that the Bureau of Internal Revenue assessment for VAT deficiency in the amount of P 541,102.79 for the year 2000 is REVERSED and SET ASIDE, whileits assessment for DST deficiency in the amount of P 24,747.13, inclusive of surcharge and interest, is UPHELD. SO ORDERED. G.R. No. 198756, August 16, 2016 BANCO DE ORO, BANK OF COMMERCE, CHINA BANKING CORPORATION, METROPOLITAN BANK & TRUST COMPANY, PHILIPPINE BANK OF COMMUNICATIONS, PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK, PHILIPPINE VETERANS BANK, AND PLANTERS DEVELOPMENT BANK, Petitioners , RIZAL COMMERCIAL BANKING CORPORATION AND RCBC CAPITAL CORPORATION, Petitioners-Intervenors , CAUCUS OF DEVELOPMENT NGO NETWORKS , Petitioner-Intervenor, v. REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES, COMMISSIONER OF INTERNAL REVENUE, BUREAU OF INTERNAL REVENUE, SECRETARY OF FINANCE, DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, THE NATIONAL TREASURER, AND BUREAU OF TREASURY , Respondents .
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R E S O L U T I O N LEONEN, J. : This resolves separate motions for reconsideration and clarification filed by the Office of the Solicitor General 1 and petitioners-intervenors Rizal Commercial Banking Corporation and RCBC Capital Corporation 2 of our Decision dated January 13, 2015, which: (1) granted the Petition and Petitions-in-Intervention and nullified Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) Ruling Nos. 370-
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