Protestant king Christian IV of Denmark (r. 1588- 1648) —witnessed additional Catholic victories. The Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein swept through Silesia, north to the Baltic, and east into Pomerania, scoring smashing victories. Under Charles I, England briefly and unsuccessfully intervened in this phase of the conflict by entering alliances against France and Spain. Habsburg power peaked in 1629. 'Ihe emperor issued the Edict of Restitution, whereby all Catholic properties lost to Protestantism since 1552 were restored, and only Catholics and Lutherans were allowed to practice their faiths. The third, or Swedish, phase of the war (1630- 1635) began with the arrival in Germany of the Swed- ish king Gustavus Adolphus (r. 1594-1632) and his army. The ablest administratar of his day and a devout Lutheran, he intervened. to suppart the empire's Prot- estants. The French chief minister, Cardinal Richelieu, subsidized the Swedes, hoping to weaken Habsburg power in Europe. Gustavus Adolphus won two impor- tant battles but was fatally wounded in combat. The final, or French, phase of the war (1635-1648) was prompted by Richelieu's cancern that the Habsburgs would rebound after the death of Gustavus Adolphus. Richelieu declared war on Spain and sent military as well as financial assistance. Finally, in October 1648 peace was achieved. The 1648 Peace of Westphalia that ended the Thirty Years' War marked a turning point in European history. For the most part, conflicts fought over reli- gious faith receded. ~Ilze treaties recognized the inde- pendent authoriq~ of more than three hundred German princes (Map 15,1), reconfirming the emperor's se- verely limited authority. The Augsburg agreement of 1555 became permanent, adding Calvinism to Cathol- icism and Lutheranism as legally permissible creeds. The north German states remained Protestant, the south German states Catholic. Zhe "Thirty Years' War was the most destructive event for the central European economy and society prior to the world wars of the twentieth century. Per- haps one-third of urban residents and two -fifths of the rural population died, leaving entire areas depapulated. Trade in southern German cities, such as Augsburg, was virtually destroyed. Agricultural areas suffered cat- astrophically. Many small farmers lost their land, al- lowing nobles to enlarge their estates and consolidate their controL~ In the context of war and economic depression, seven- teenth -century monarchs began to make new demands on their people. Traditionally, historians have dis- tinguished between the "absolutist" governments of France, Spain, central Europe, and Russia and ehe con- stitutionalist governments of England and the Dutch Republic. Whereas absolutist monarchs gathered all. power under their personal control, English and Dutch rulers were obliged to respect Taws passed by represen-
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