1 3 Loads Earthquake loads If the column is very flexible the block has a large

1 3 loads earthquake loads if the column is very

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1-3 Loads Earthquake loads •If the column is very flexible & the block has a large mass, induced motion will cause small accelerations of the block & large relative displacement •Fig 1.16
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1-3 Loads Earthquake loads •The effects of a structure’s response can be determined & represented as an earthquake response spectrum •For small structure, static analysis is satisfactory
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1-3 Loads Earthquake loads
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1-3 Loads Hydrostatic & Soil Pressure •The pressure developed by these loadings when the structures are used to retain water or soil or granular materials •E.g. tanks, dams, ships, bulkheads & retaining walls
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1-3 Loads Other natural loads •Effect of blast •Temperature changes •Differential settlement of foundation
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1-4 Structural Design Material uncertainties occur due to •variability in material properties •residual stress in materials •intended measurements being different from fabricated sizes •material corrosion or decay
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1-4 Structural Design •Many types of loads discussed previously can occur simultaneously on a structure •However, it is unlikely that the max of all these loads will occur at the same time
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