Were conducted examining the association of changes

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were conducted, examining the association of changes in self-efficacy with whether or not specific intervention techniques were used. Interventions that included feedback on past or others' performanceproduced the highest levels of selfefficacy found in this review. Vicarious experience was also associated with higher levels of self-efficacy. Persuasion, graded mastery, and barrier identification were associated with lower levels of self-efficacy. 6 CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis forms an evidence base for which psychological techniques are most effective in increasing self-efficacy for physical activity. The results are presented in terms of recommendations for those developing interventions and directions for future research. Bacon L & Aphramor L. (2011). Weight Science: Evaluating the Evidence for a Paradigm Shift. Nutrition Journal, 10:9 ABSTRACT: Current guidelines recommend that “overweight” and “obese” individuals lose weight through engaging in lifestyle modification involving diet, exercise and other behavior change. Thisapproach reliably induces short term weight loss, but the majority of individuals are unable to maintain weight loss over the long term and do not achieve the putative benefits of improved morbidity and mortality. Concern has arisen that this weight focus is not only ineffective at producing thinner, healthier bodies, but may also have unintended consequences, contributing to food and body preoccupation, repeated cycles of weight loss and regain, distraction from other personal health goals and wider health determinants, reduced self-esteem, eating disorders, other health decrement, and weight stigmatization and discrimination. This concern has drawn increased attention to the ethical implications of recommending treatment that may be ineffective or damaging. A growing trans-disciplinary movement called Health at Every Size (HAES) challenges the value of promoting weight loss and dieting behavior and argues for a shift in focus to weight-neutral outcomes. Randomized controlled clinical trials indicate that a HAES approach is associated with statistically and clinically relevant improvements in physiologicalmeasures (e.g., blood pressure, blood lipids), health behaviors (e.g., eating and activity habits, dietary quality), and psychosocial outcomes (such as self-esteem and body image), and that HAES achieves thesehealth outcomes more successfully than weight loss treatment and without the contraindications associated with a weight focus. This paper evaluates the evidence and rationale that justifies shifting the health care paradigm from a conventional weight focus to HAES.
Balmford J, Borland R, & Burney S. (2010). The influence of having a quit date on prediction of smoking cessation outcome. Health Education Research, 25(4): 698-706. The aim of this study was to explore whether factors predicting making a quit attempt are uniform within the preparation stage of the transtheoretical model (TTM). Participants were 283 smokers, all planning to quit in the next 30 days

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