This is an exergonic reaction and the energy produced

Info icon This preview shows pages 18–20. Sign up to view the full content.

This is an exergonic reaction and the energy produced is used to make ATP from ADP o ADP is phosphorylated Low proton concentration in matrix; High proton concentration in the intermembrane space o Energy is used to pump protons against their concentration gradients; from low concentration to high concentration Pump = energy is required; requires ATP or energy in some form o **ANYTIME HAVE MOVEMENT = HAVE ENERGY** o Things will naturally move from high to low; this movement will activate an enzyme in the intermembrane called ATP synthase that makes ATP ETC maintains the concentration gradient Chemiosmotic coupling o Energy released through ETC pumps H+ ions into intermembrane space o H+ ions flowing back into the matrix down their concentration gradient power ATP synthase to make ATP Produces 32-36 ATP (average 34)
Image of page 18

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

19 o ATP balance sheet Glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle yield 4 ATP These numbers are constant Oxidative phosphorylation in electron transport yields varying amounts of ATP depending on the cell and conditions Theoretically each NADH yields 3 ATP and each FADH2 yields 2ATP Theoretical ATP yield is 36-38 per glucose - What happens when our tissues are low on O2? o Saved by the Lactic Acid Fermentation Cycle o No ATP gets made directly by this process; all it does is regenerates NAD + o Does not require O2 o Provides NAD + so that glycolysis can continue to generate 2 ATP for every molecule of glucose that gets broken o There is no purpose for lactic acid; doesn’t do our bodies any good; responsible for muscle soreness; it’s a byproduct and what happens when our bodies are low on oxygen o Ethanol fermentation is how alcohol is made Skip Chapter 4: on exam 2; will be the hardest chapter all semester YYAYYYYY Chapter 5: Chemical Signaling - Direct and indirect intercellular communication o Direct Physically touching each other; connected through a protein channel called a connexon in the form of a jap junction Think of it was a hotel room suite that is connected to another room with a door in the middle These channels are always open for the signals to go from one cell to the next Found in reflexes > happen really fast Can have a lot of cells set up really close to one another and make a circuit; can activate one cell and it activates all of them; good for synchronizing activity o Indirect More common pathway Involves chemical messengers that bind to a receptor In order for a cell to respond to a messenger it has to have a receptor for that messenger to have any effect on that cell Ex: target cell > has receptor for that cell; if it didn’t have a receptor then it wouldn’t be going to the target cell Even if it has a receptor for that ligand doesn’t mean that the ligand can always stick; another one can have the same shape and take up that space - Chemical messengers o Paracrines = cells that are right next to each other
Image of page 19
Image of page 20
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern