such as “Is your name David?” are there simply to maintain a base or standard physiological reaction.
This is important because an examiner asks control questions in between relevant questions hoping to see
a reaction during the relevant questions. When a tested individual bites his or her tongue during the
control question, they enhance their physiological reaction making it difficult to differentiate reactions in
In theory, this countermeasure works because pain creates a similar physiological reaction as
lying does so the examiner would not be able to tell the difference. This countermeasure also has its
downfalls. In many cases, especially when lying, the tested individual would not be able to provide
enough force without really hurting themselves to enhance a reaction that mimics a lie. Also, a trained
polygraph examiner will be able to tell if someone is biting their tongue and be able to put a stop to it. In
essence, an examiner could use that physical act as a basis for them trying to lie without getting caught
Honts, C. R. (1994). Mental and Physical Countermeasures Reduce the Accuracy of Polygraph Tests.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(2), 252-259. Retrieved from 002I-9010/94
3. What is the term "Bogus Pipeline"?
What is it and is it real?
State you’re supporting details.