Cog 1 review - full

Visual example of how the two processes work together

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Visual example of how the two processes work together: The Two Quarters Demonstration-hold one quarter far away and one quarter closer to your eyes, close one eye and position the two, without changing the distances, so they appear to have their edges touching one another. You will perceive the farther quarter as smaller because it will project a smaller image onto the retina (bottom-up processing). Now open both eyes and you will perceive the quarters to be more similar in size because this enables you to perceive depth, the relative distance of the two quarters (addition of top-down processing). So the perceptual system can take into account this additional information to perceive more accurately. - size constancy- we tend to perceive objects as remaining the same size even when they move to different differences (i.e. we know that the further quarter did not shrink). Smell example-perceiving odor intensity with regards to sniffs-Robert Teghtsoonian found that people rated the odor of flowers with identical intensity ratings for weak and for strong sniffs. This means that although they had more odor molecules to stimulate the receptors during the strong sniff, it did not influence their ratings. They concluded that this meant that the participants were taking the strength of their sniff into account in making their ratings, just as in the first example where participants take the distance of the quarters into account when perceiving size. Take home message: perception may start at the receptors, but it depends on additional sources of information as well to be accurate.
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4. Attention and resource limitations. First, provide a definition and concrete example of resource limitation in attention. Then, build on that example to outline an experiment that would demonstrate that people’s attention is limited by not enough resources. Your example can come from either the visual or auditory domain. I emailed the TA about this question because there was no specific definition for resource limitations so this is what she said to me: What the question means by “resource limitation” is that often times, the brain does not have enough cognitive resources to pay attention to everything that is going on in a scene. For instance, you can think of Where's Waldo, or the driving/cell phone example, where you may even look directly at something (Waldo or say, a stop sign), but unless you have the resources to attend to it, you may not even perceive it. Essentially, there are often way too many things going on for you to attend to all of them, and that's why you have limited resources. Relevant examples would be the driving and inattentional blindness example, the Stroop task (not having sufficient resources to inhibit the automatic processing of reading the names of the colors), as well as the dichotic listening task examples (not having enough resources to shadow what is in the attended ear and at the same time process or realize what is being presented in the unattended ear).
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Christopher Reinemann
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