Empathy the requirements engineer has the challenging

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Empathy: The requirements engineer has the challenging task of identi- fying the actual needs of a stakeholder. A core requirement to be able to
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1.4 Requirement Types 7 achieve this is to have good intuition and empathy for people. In addi- tion, she must identify problems that might arise in a group of stakehold- ers and act accordingly. Communication skills: To elicit the requirements from stakeholders and to interpret them correctly and communicate them in a suitable man- ner, a requirements engineer must have good communication skills. She must be able to listen, ask the right questions at the right time, notice when a statement does not contain the desired information, and make further inquiries when necessary. Conflict resolution skills: Different opinions of different stakeholders can be the cause of conflicts during requirements engineering. The requirements engineer must identify conflicts, mediate between the parties involved, and apply techniques suitable to resolving the conflict. Moderation skills: The requirements engineer must be able to mediate between different opinions and lead discussions. This holds true for individual conversations as well as group conversations and work- shops. Self-confidence: Since the requirements engineer is frequently at the center of attention, she occasionally is exposed to criticism as well. As a result, she needs a high level of self-confidence and the ability to defend herself should strong objections to her opinions arise. She should never take criticism personally. Persuasiveness: Among other things, the requirements engineer is, in a matter of speaking, a kind of attorney for the requirements of the stakeholders. She must be able to represent the requirements in team meetings and presentations. In addition, she must consolidate differ- ing opinions, facilitate a decision in case of a disagreement, and create consensus among the stakeholders. 1.4 Requirement Types Generally, one can distinguish between three types of requirements: Functional requirements define the functionality that the system to be developed offers. Usually, these requirements are divided into func- tional requirements, behavioral requirements, and data requirements (see chapter 4) .
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8 1 Introduction and Foundations Quality requirements define desired qualities of the system to be devel- oped and often influence the system architecture more than functional requirements do. Typically, quality requirements are about the per- formance, availability, dependability, scalability, or portability of a sys- tem. Requirements of this type are frequently classified as non-func- tional requirements. Constraints cannot be influenced by the team members. Requirements of this type can constrain the system itself (e.g., “The system shall be implemented using web services”) or the development process (“The system shall be available on the market no later than the second quarter of 2012”). In contrast to functional and quality requirements, con- straints are not implemented, they are adhered to because they merely limit the solution space available during the development process.
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