• Counselling is mainly focused to improving the unity of the community. An individual mainly lives for the community. • Seniority in age is a recognized qualification for counselling one’s juniors. • Specialized counseling is done by recognized people who possess special abilities or training within the community, for example, diviners, and medicine men. • Parents are the main counsellors of their children although other members participate in counselling them too. • Counselling is based on dignity and respect for human beings. • Vocational guidance is mainly by apprenticeship. • Children are expected to obey their parents and other adults without question. • Child rearing is a collective task for all adults in the community. 13
2.4 DEVELOPMENT OF GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING IN IN THE SCHOOL SYSTEM IN KENYA Formal Guidance and Counselling was introduced into the Kenya education system farely recently as the following chronological record will show: • 1964 – The Kenya Education Commission Report (the Omide Report). The report recommended that schools begin providing some guidance to schools. As a result the Ministry of Education started a sub-section within the Inspectorate Section in 1971 to oversee the effective implementation of guidance in schools. Further, a booklet on career guide for Career Masters (Advisors) was developed in the in same year. • 1974 – 76 - Government Development Plan. Recommended that the Headquarters allow time for teachers in guidance to attend the pupils’ needs. This recommendation has not been implemented in most secondary schools. It is common practice for a teacher designated as counsellor to do counselling in addition to his/her normal teaching load. 1976 – Report of the National Committee on Educational Objectives and Policies (the Gachathi Report). Previously, emphasis was laid on vocational guidance. But it was found that the students had psychological problems that needed to be 14
attended too. As a result, Gachathi report recommended that teacher trainees take a compulsory course in Guidance and Counselling as part of their training package. Further, they were expected to provide guidance and counselling as part of their normal duties after training. As we have observed previously, most of the teacher counsellors teach their full load and counsel on the side. 1979 – 83 – Kenya Development Plan Recommended that Guidance and Counselling be part of the teacher training curriculum at the college and university levels. This recommendation was implemented but the content remained very shallow to produce qualified counsellors. This situation has not improved since that time. At the university level, the teacher trainees are provided with one course in introduction to Guidance and Counselling. This is not enough to prepare them as counsellors.