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Cervical mucus cervical plug protects uterine content

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cervical mucus (cervical plug) protects uterine content, more acidic vaginal secretions with deter infectious organisms -Breast enlarges: increased glandular tissue Effects of Expanding Uterus -Pressure of expanding uterus can interfere with digestive functions, reduce vital capacity, and increase pressure on bladder and rectum, and change center of gravity Weight Gain and Nutrition - Average weight gain: 25-30 pounds/11-13kg -Increased size of uterus and contents ex: enlarged breasts and additional blood -Increased demand for protein, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, and minerals -Adequate calcium for bones and teeth -Increased iron needs as maternal blood volume increases Digestive System Changes -Nausea and vomiting- common in 1 st trimester and not just in the morning, and change in eating patter often reduces discomfort -Decreased motility in the digestive tract- relaxation of smooth muscle by progesterone, and slower emptying of the stomach because of the reflux of stomach contents (heartburn) and constipation Musculoskeletal Changes -Marked postural changes pelvic joints relax or loosen, hormones prepare for delivery, and loss of stability (waddling gait) -Increased abdominal weight tendency toward Lordosis, and balance and coordination impairment -Backache caused by these changes Cardiovascular Changes -Increased blood volume both fluid and erythrocytes, and increased production of red blood cells for fetus because of required iron intake by mother -Heart rate may increase slightly -Blood pressure frequently drops slightly in first two trimesters, and rises to normal levels in last trimester -Varicose veins frequently develops during pregnancy Ectopic Pregnancy : tubal pregnancy -Zygote is implanted outside of uterus most often in fallopian tubes -Spontaneous abortion may follow -Embryo may continue to develop eventually causes tubal rupture, severe hemorrhage that could lead to shock, or death. Considered surgical emergency
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Pregnancy Induced Hypertension -Persistently elevated blood pressure greater than 140/90 and develops after 29 weeks but returns to normal after delivery -Pre-eclampsia- progressively higher BP, kidney dysfunctions, edema, and weight gain complications HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) -Eclampsia- extremely high blood pressure that could causes seizures, or a coma. Increases risk for stoke and may require C-section Gestational Diabetes Mellitus -Develops in 2-5% of women -May lead to developmental abnormalities if blood glucose is high in 1 st trimester -Newborn is large for gestational age and may experience hypoglycemia after birth -Glucose levels should be closely monitored in women with family history of diabetes and previous high birth weights of infants -Dietary management and exercise program -Insulin may be necessary to reduce blood glucose levels -Oral hypoglycemics are Teratogenic and not used Placenta Previa: placenta is implanted in lower uterus or over cervix. The placenta may
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