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33 smith mr and alpert gp 2000 pepper spray a safe

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33. Smith, M.R. and Alpert, G.P. (2000), "Pepper spray: a safe and reasonable response to suspect verbal resistance", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 233-45. 34. Smith, M.R., Kaminski, R.J., Rojeck, J., Alpert, G.P. and Mathis, J. (2007), "The impact of conducted energy devices and other types of force and resistance on officer and suspect injuries", Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, Vol. 30 No. 3, pp. 423-46. 35. Smith, M.R. and Petrocelli, M. (2002), "The effectiveness of force used by police in making arrests", Police Practice and Research, Vol. 3 No. 3, pp. 201-15. 36. Stetser, M. (2001), The Use of Force in Police Control of Violence: Incidents Resulting in Assaults on Officers, LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC, New York, NY. 37. Stock, H.V., Borum, R. and Baltzley, D. (1998), "Police use of deadly force", in Hall, H.V. (Ed.), Lethal Violence: A PDF GENERATED BY SEARCH.PROQUEST.COM Page 14 of 18
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Sourcebook on Fatal Domestic, Acquaintance, and Stranger Aggression, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 38. Sykes, R.E. and Brent, E.E. (1983), Policing: A Social Behaviorist Perspective, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, NJ. 40. Terrill, W. (2003), "Police use of force and suspect resistance: the micro process of the police-suspect encounter", Police Quarterly, Vol. 6 No. 1, pp. 51-83. 41. Terrill, W. (2005), "Police use of force: a transactional approach", Justice Quarterly, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 107-38. 42. Terrill, W., Alpert, G.P., Dunham, R.G. and Smith, M.R. (2003), "A management tool for evaluating police use of force: an application of the force factor", Police Quarterly, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 150-71. 43. Terrill, W. and Paoline, E.A. (2007), "Force continuums: moving beyond speculation and toward empiricism", Law Enforcement Executive Forum, Vol. 7 No. 4, pp. 27-31. 44. Terrill, W. and Mastrofski, S. (2002), "Situational and officer-based determinants of police coercion", Justice Quarterly, Vol. 19 No. 2, pp. 215-48. 45. Toch, H. (1969), Violent Men - An Inquiry into the Psychology of Violence, Aldine Publishing, Chicago, IL. 46. Walker, S. and Fridell, L. (1993), "Forces of change in police policy: the impact of Tennessee v. Garner on deadly force policy", American Journal of Police, Vol. 11, pp. 97-112. 47. Williams, G.T. (2002), "Force continuums: a liability to law enforcement?", FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 71 No. 6, pp. 14-19. 48. Wolf, R., Mesloh, C. and Henych, M. (2008), "Cumulative force factor: examining resultant suspect and officer injuries", Law Enforcement Executive Forum, Vol. 8 No. 4, pp. 65-79. 49. Tennessee v. Garner (1985), 471 US 1. 50. Graham v. Connor (1989), 490 US 386. PDF GENERATED BY SEARCH.PROQUEST.COM Page 15 of 18
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Appendix About the authors Ross Wolf is an Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice at the University of Central Florida in Orlando, Florida and holds a Doctorate degree in Higher Education Administration and Educational Leadership. He has over 17 years of experience as a law enforcement officer and has worked various assignments including patrol, criminal investigations, and a tactical operation unit. He continues to serve as a police academy instructor and serves as Division Chief with the Orange County Sheriff's Office Reserve Unit. Ross Wolf is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: [email protected]
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