N deals with technical issues outside the scope of

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n Deals with technical issues outside the scope of the Orange Book wrt to networks n Redbook interprets the Orange Book n Orange Book – Trusted Computer Security Evaluation Criteria TNI Evaluation Classes D – Minimal protection C – Discretionary protection C1 – Discretionary Security Protection C2 – Controlled Access protection B – Mandatory B1 – Labeled Security B2 – Structured B3- Security Domains Technology Concepts Protocols: is a standard set of rules that determines how computers communicate with each other across networks despite their differences (PC, UNIC, Mac..) Layered architecture: shows how communication should take place n Clarify the general functions of a communication process n To break down complex networking processes into more manageable sublayers n Using industry-standard interfaces enables interoperability n To change the features of one layer without changing all of the code in every layer n Easier troubleshooting
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OSI – Open Systems Interconnect Model Layer 7 Application Security : Confidentiality, authentication, data integrity, non- repudiation Technology : gateways Protocols : FTP, SMB, TELNET, TFTP, SMTP, HTTP, NNTP, CDP, GOPHER, SNMP, NDS, AFP, SAP, NCP, SET n Responsible for all application-to- application communications. User information maintained at this layer is user data . Layer 6 Presentation Security : confidentiality, authentication, encryption Technology : gateway Protocols: ASCII, EBCDIC, POSTSCRIPT, JPEG, MPEG, GIF n Responsible for the formatting of the data so that it is suitable for presentation. Responsible for character conversion (ASCII/EBCDIC), Encryption/Decryption, Compression, and Virtual Terminal Emulation. User information maintained at this layer is called messages . Layer 5 Session Security : None Technology : gateways Protocols : Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) and SQL, RADIUS, DNS, ASP n Responsible for the setup of the links, maintaining of the link, and the link tear-down between applications. Layer 4 Transport Security : Confidentiality, authentication, integrity Technology : gateways Protocols : TCP, UDP, SSL, SSH-2, SPX, NetBios, ATP n Responsible for the guaranteed delivery of user information. It is also responsible for error detection, correction, and flow control. User information at this layer is called datagrams . Layer 3 Network Security : confidentiality, authentication, data integrity Technology : virtual circuits (ATM), routers Protocols : IP, IPX, ICMP, OSPF, IGRP, EIGRP, RIP, BOOTP, DHCP, ISIS, ZIP, DDP, X.25 n Responsible for the routing of user data from one node to another through the network including the path selection. Logical addresses are used at this layer. User information maintained at this layer is called packets . Layer 2 Data Link Security : confidentiality, Technology : bridges, switch Protocols : L2F, PPTP, L2TP, PPP, SLIP, ARP, RARP, SLARP, IARP, SNAP, BAP, CHAP, LCP, LZS, MLP, Frame Relay, Annex A, Annex D, HDLC, BPDU, LAPD, ISL, MAC, Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI n Responsible for the physical addressing of the network via MAC addresses. Ther are two sublevels to the Data-Link layer. MAC and LLC.
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