# If a sample is selected so that it systematically

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• apiccirello
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If a sample is selected so that it systematically favors certain groups of the population, we say it is ________________________. 8. A random sample of 1001 University of California faculty members was asked, “Do you favor or oppose using race, religion, sex, color, ethnicity, or national origin as a criterion for admission to the University of California?” 52% responded “favor.” What was the population for this survey?

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Chapter 5: Producing Data 9. List the two characteristics necessary for a sample to be a simple random sample. 1. 2. 10. A popular magazine often presents readers with the opportunity to answer a survey question by mailing in their response to the magazine. A typical question might be, “Do you think there is too much violence on television?” This type sample is called a/an ________________________________ sample. 11. (a) Explain briefly the difference between an observational study and an experiment. (b) In which one of these is it safer to conclude that the difference in response was caused by the effect of the explanatory variable? ___________________________ 12. List the three basic principles of experimental design (key words are sufficient): (a) _______________________ (b) _________________________ (c) _______________________ 13. Sometimes researchers think that experimental units are different enough in regard to an important variable that they should be grouped on that variable and then randomly assigned to treatments. These groups are called _________________. 14. To prevent bias, experimenters try to assign subjects to a group so that neither the subjects nor the people who evaluate them know which treatment group the subject is in. An experiment of this type is described as ________________________. 15. Doctors investigated the relationship between a person’s heart rate and the frequency at which that person stepped up and down on steps of various heights. There were 3 rates of stepping and 2 different step heights used. A subject performed the activity (stepping at one of the 3 stepping rates at one of the 2 possible heights) for three minutes. His heart rate was then measured. (a) State what the factors are in this experiment. Next to each factor state its number of levels. (b) How many treatments are in this experiment? _____________ (c) Identify one of the treatments. _____________________________ (d) What is the response variable for this study? ________________
Chapter 5: Producing Data Names of 12 subjects are listed followed by a line of random digits. Ahbel Barnes Calhoun Dancer Freda Keller Magee Marge McCullion Stevens Meier Winokur 41842 81068 09001 03367 49497 54580 81507 27102 56027 55892 33063 71035 e) Demonstrate your understanding of simple random sampling by using the random digits to determine which subjects would be randomly assigned to the first treatment. List these names: ___________________________________________________________________________ f) Describe how your selections were made. Be sufficiently clear in your description that I can duplicate your work. g) Demonstrate your understanding of random blocked sampling by using the random digits to determine which subjects would be randomly assigned to the first treatment. List these names: ___________________________________________________ h) Describe how your selections were made. Be sufficiently clear in your description that I can duplicate your work.

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