They were not however able to hold certain offices or be educated at certain

They were not however able to hold certain offices or

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obligations of non-Protestants but otherwise leaving their possessions intact. They were not, however, able to hold certain offices or be educated at certain universities, restrictions that remained in place until the 1930s (McKay et al., 2017). The German regions of the HRE escaped war, but persecution on the basis of religion within these principalities exploded, including executions of papists and Protestants, Jews, and above all, witches, who were predominantly female. While the hunting and persecution of witches occurred throughout the West by Protestants and Catholics, it was most pronounced in Scotland and the German territories. Anxiety about true belief as well as more secular factors, such as economic advantage and control of women, fueled the execution of so-called witches. The height of the witch hunts coincided with the height of religious warfare (Pavlac, 2009). The witches themselves ranged from outspoken women, to envied women of position and wealth, to village wise women skilled in healing whose medicines were mistaken for potions and spells, to those women and wizards who actually did believe they could control nature through manipulation of spirits. The exact motives for accusations varied from place to place. Interpretations of history of the Salem witch hunts offer multiple explanations: ingestion of an unknown fungus that caused mass hallucination; acute anxiety for survival of the New World communities; starvation and illness; avarice set on robbing older, propertied women of their holdings; resentment due to class differences; and manipulation by key leaders to gain control (Brandt, 2014). Overall, the number of dead, mostly women, is estimated at between 40,000 and 60,000. This shows that persecution through charges of witchcraft was one of the greatest impacts of religious strife (McKay et al., 2017).
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HY 1010, Western Civilization I 11 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title Shared Seeds: The Reformation and the Revolution The story of the transformation in worldview that was called the Scientific Revolution is often distorted due to oversimplification in earlier versions lacking the extensive use of archives to which historians now have access. The over-simplified story is that the Scientific Revolution describes the destruction of the intervention of God in the universe and the progress made in the less oppressive atmosphere of new Protestant countries in northern Europe. Myths about the flat world or the unmoving earth caused by superstition or literal readings of the Bible were exploded thanks to a new spirit of inquiry. In this view, the Protestant Reformation is part of the cause of the Scientific Revolution, motivating believers to understand the world with accuracy in order to use it well, as God intended. The Roman Catholic Church, in this simplified story, is the stock villain, either ignorant or intent on maintaining the ignorance of the people by persecuting scientists. Galileo is the victim of that ignorance, as he tried to convince leaders of the Catholic Church of the truth of the sun-centered solar system.
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  • Spring '12
  • Barker
  • Protestant Reformation

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