Br\u00f8nstedLowry definition is more widely used A Br\u00f8nstedLowry acid is a proton H

Brønstedlowry definition is more widely used a

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Brønsted–Lowry definition is more widely used: A Brønsted–Lowry acid is a proton (H + ) donor . A Brønsted–Lowry base is a proton (H + ) acceptor . H 3 O + ( aq ) + Cl ( aq ) HCl( g ) + H 2 O( l ) This proton is donated. HCl is a Brønsted–Lowry acid because it donates a proton to the solvent water. H 2 O is a Brønsted–Lowry base because it accepts a proton from HCl.
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Bronsted and Lowry acid must contain a hydrogen atom . Common B-L acids:
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B-L Acids
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A monoprotic acid contains one acidic proton. A diprotic acid contains two acidic protons. A triprotic acid contains three acidic protons. A Brønsted–Lowry acid may be neutral or it may carry a net positive or negative charge. Mono-, Di-, Triprotic Acids
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Mono-, Di-, Triprotic Acids Classify the following acids: HCl, HF, HNO 3 H 2 CO 3 , H 2 SO 4 H 3 PO 4 CH 3 CH 2 COOH Some acids may appear to have numerous H + ions to donate, but be careful!
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Mono-, Di-, Triprotic Acids Acetic acid: HC 2 H 3 O 2 has only one H to donate The other H atoms are strongly bonded to Carbon atoms ( slightly polar bond) Acidic H atom is bonded to
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Acetic acid, CH 3 COOH, contains several H atoms The H atom of the OH group is the acidic proton that is donated. H O | // H - C C | \ H O- H
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Brønsted–Lowry Bases A Brønsted–Lowry base is a proton acceptor , so it must be able to form a bond to a proton. A base must contain a lone pair of electrons that can be used to form a new bond to the proton. N H H H + H 2 O( l ) N H H H H + + OH( aq ) Brønsted–Lowry base
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Brønsted–Lowry Bases ( B : ) is a proton acceptor Must contain a lone pair of electrons that can be donated to form a new bond. Hydroxide (OH - ) which contains an oxygen atom with 3 lone pairs of electrons, is most common Brønsted–Lowry Base.
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Brønsted–Lowry Bases Common Brønsted–Lowry Bases ( B ) Na OH sodium hydroxide K OH potassium hydroxide Mg( OH ) 2 magnesium hydroxide Ca( OH ) 2 calcium hydroxide H 2 O water NH 3 ammonia Lone pairs make these neutral compounds bases: The OH - is the base in each metal salt:
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bases in consumer Products
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Proton Transfer The Reaction of a Brønsted–Lowry Acid with a Brønsted–Lowry Base H A + B A H B + + acid base
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Conjugate (coupled) acid-base pairs: Chemical formulas differ by one H + ion Cation products are usually the conjugate acid Anion products are usually the conjugate base
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Proton Transfer The Reaction of a Brønsted–Lowry Acid with a Brønsted–Lowry Base H A + B A H B + + gain of H + acid base conjugate base conjugate acid loss of H +
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Proton Transfer The Reaction of a Brønsted–Lowry Acid with a Brønsted–Lowry Base H Br + + H 2 O Br H 3 O + The net charge must be the same on both sides of the equation.
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Proton Transfer The Reaction of a Brønsted–Lowry Acid with a Brønsted–Lowry Base Amphoteric compound : A compound that contains both a H atom and a lone pair of e it can be either an acid or a base.
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