Improvements offered by the two stage model include 1

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Improvements offered by the two-stage model include: (1) The two-stage model is more realistic. It accounts for low, high, or zero growth in the first stage, followed by constant long-term growth in the second stage. (2) The model can be used to determine stock value when the growth rate in the first stage exceeds the required rate of return. 12. a. In order to determine whether a stock is undervalued or overvalued, analysts often compute price-earnings ratios (P/Es) and price-book ratios (P/Bs); then, these ratios are compared to benchmarks for the market, such as the S&P 500 index. The formulas for these calculations are: Relative P/E = P/E of specific company P/E of S&P 500 Relative P/B = P/B of specific company P/B of S&P 500 To evaluate EO and SHC using a relative P/E model, Mulroney can calculate the five-year average P/E for each stock, and divide that number by the 5-year average P/E for the S&P 500 (shown in the last column of Table 19E). This gives the historical average relative P/E. Mulroney can then compare the average historical relative P/E to the current relative P/E (i.e., the current P/E on each stock, using the estimate of this year’s earnings per share in Table 19F, divided by the current P/E of the market). For the price/book model, Mulroney should make similar calculations, i.e., divide the five-year average price-book ratio for a stock by the five year average price/book for the S&P 500, and compare the result to the current relative price/book (using current book value). The results are as follows: P/E model EO SHC S&P500 5-year average P/E 16.56 11.94 15.20 Relative 5-year P/E 1.09 0.79 Current P/E 17.50 16.00 20.20 Current relative P/E 0.87 0.79 Price/Book model EO SHC S&P500 5-year average price/book 1.52 1.10 2.10 Relative 5-year price/book 0.72 0.52 Current price/book 1.62 1.49 2.60 Current relative price/book 0.62 0.57 19-7
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From this analysis, it is evident that EO is trading at a discount to its historical 5- year relative P/E ratio, whereas Southampton is trading right at its historical 5- year relative P/E. With respect to price/book, Eastover is trading at a discount to its historical relative price/book ratio, whereas SHC is trading modestly above its 5-year relative price/book ratio. As noted in the preamble to the problem (see problem 10), Eastover’s book value is understated due to the very low historical cost basis for its timberlands. The fact that Eastover is trading below its 5-year average relative price to book ratio, even though its book value is understated, makes Eastover seem especially attractive on a price/book basis. b. Disadvantages of the relative P/E model include: (1) the relative P/E measures only relative, rather than absolute, value; (2) the accounting earnings estimate for the next year may not equal sustainable earnings; (3) accounting practices may not be standardized; (4) changing accounting standards may make historical comparisons difficult.
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