Classics-212-Mid-Term-Study-Guide.pdf

From this the romans initiate their diplomacy by

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offer all their lands. From this, the Romans initiate their diplomacy by returning most of the city’s properties, proving their generosity and willingness for harmony. City-states that prove good on Roman’s Fides are awarded with better diplomatic requirements while those who betray Roman’s Fides are severely punished and made example of. The failure of Hannibal’s campaign proved testimony to the strength of this trust. deditio in fidem – (handing over into faith) means surrender; conquered city-states would surrender all their land/wealth to Rome, but Rome would give the majority back to them and just take a little as tribute civitas sine suffragio (citizenship without suffrage) a certain level of citizenship in the Roman Republic in which you were without voting powers ager publicus/Romanus Roman public land usually acquired via the means of expropriation from enemies of Rome Via Appia (the appian way) Appian Road, 312 BCE one of the earliest and strategically most important Roman roads of the ancient republic. It connected Rome to Brindisi, in southeast Italy Veii - Important rival, quite close to Rome, Etruscan, Town destroyed and site taken by Rome, 396 BCE. It was alternately at war and in alliance with the Roman Republic for over 300 years. It eventually fell in the Battle of Veii to Roman general Camillus's army in 396 BC. Veii continued to be occupied after its capture by the Romans, which established Roman as dominant central Italian power Coloniae – Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it; eventually the term came to denote the highest status of the Roman city Punic Wars First Punic War 264-241 BC Proxy war: Romans sided with Messina and Carthaginians sided with Syracuse on the island of Sicily Atilius Regulus – Invaded North Africa in 256-255 BCE during first Punic War, expanded into Sicily and North Africa Second Punic War 218-201 BC
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3 Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus – Defeats Hannibal at Zama in 202 BCE, He routed Carthaginians in Spain. Took New Carthage and drove out Carthaginians. One of greatest generals ever. Pulled the Roman army together after their humiliating defeat at Cannae with indomitable spirit Quintus Fabius Maximus – Roman general, he originated Fabian tactics (father of guerilla warfare) Acted as Consul 5 times. Dictator in 221 and 217 Hamilcar Barca – Hannibal’s father, commanded the Carthaginian land forces in Sicily from 247 BC to 241 BC, during the latter stages of the First Punic War Hannibal – Hamilcar’s son, Started outbreak of second punic war.. marched an army including elephants over the Pyrenees and Alps into Italy in 218. He attempted to crush the idea of fides and break apart the system, and he succeeded at this in Tarentum and Capua. However, his army was spread too thin trying to protect these cities while still attacking others, and he was ultimately forced to return to Carthage, where he was defeated by scipio africanus at the battle of Zama. One of the greatest strategist of ancient history. “Hannibal at the gates” saying to scare children, treated like a mythical figure.
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