Emphasis is to use these skills to acquire

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Emphasis is to use these skills to acquire heterosexual relationships. Fixation results in being isolated, not being cooperative and inability to find partners of the opposite sex. The individual may end up being lonely in life. Intext Question 1. Why did the neo psychoanalysts disagree with Freud's conceptualization of personality? 2. Describe the psychosexual stages of personality development 3.5.2 Erikson's Psychosocial Stages 3.5.2 Erikson's Psychosocial Stages Erik Erikson's background seemed to have had a major impact in the development of his theory. He was born in 1902 in Germany but his parents were Danish. He trained as a psychoanalyst under Anna Freud's, Sigmund Freud' daughter. She was more interested in child analysis than her father and this impacted on Erickson's training. He was influenced further by his contacts with famous anthropologists such as Ruth Benedict and Margaret Mead while in the USA. He therefore became a neoFreudian who developed a psychosocial theory of personality. He identified eight stages of personality development and emphasized the role of physical and social environment in this process. The individual must resolve a crisis in each stage in order to develop appropriate personality. The first five stages are equivalent to Freuds stages but unlike Freud he believed that the environment continues to influence us until we die. So he added three more stages. The following is Erikson's theory of psychosocial development of personality. 1. Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust (0-1). The main factor in this stage is the quality of care the infant is given by the care givers. The quality of care the baby receives determines how it comes to view its mother and other people in particular and the world in general. If the infant's needs are met and discomfort eliminated (that is cuddled fondled, played with and talked to) it develops a sense of the world as safe place to be and of people as helpful and dependable. However, if its care is inconsistent it develops a sense of mistrust, fear and suspicion. 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)
During this stage the child's muscle and cognitive systems are maturing and hence it is becoming more mobile thus expanding its range of experiences and choices. The child begins to see itself as independent in thinking and hence develops a sense of autonomy. Consequently it wants to do things by itself. If the child is allowed to exercise its newfound skills under careful supervision a sense of autonomy develops. However if the child is rebuked, or denied the opportunity to exercise the new found skills, it becomes doubtful, and ashamed of its activities. 3. Initiative vs. Guilt (3 - 7 years) In this stage, the child's development is proceeding at a rapid pace physically, intellectually and socially and so it is keen to try new skills to achieve all sorts of new goals. If the child is allowed (encouraged) to ask questions and express its natural curiosity and if it is given the freedom to exercise other skills, his initiative will be reinforced.

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