The larger the number of females in a particular household the greater the numberof visits to a physician b.Three peaksto visitation for females1. High rates during childhood 2. After age 35 3. After a decline, physician visits by females steadily increase after age 45Ethnicity One of the most systematic studies was:*Edward Suchmans’s 1965 investigationof the extent of the belief in acceptance of modern medicine among several ethnic groups in New York City 9.Sought to link individual medical orientations and behaviors to specific types of social relationships and their corresponding group structures 10. Believed that interplay of group relationships with an individual’s personal orientation toward medicine affected his or health seeking behavior11. Categorized people as belonging to cosmopolitan (sophisticated)or parochial (unsophisticated) groups12. People in parochial groupfound to have close and exclusive relationships with family, friends and members of their ethnic group and to display limited knowledge of disease, skepticism of medical care and high dependency illnessa.More likely than the cosmopolitan group to delay in seeking medical care and more likely to rely on “lay-referral” system in coping with symptoms of illnessi.Lay referral: non-professionals- family members, friends or neighbors- who assist individuals in interpreting their systems are recommending a course of action13. Cosmopolitan group demonstrated low ethnicity exclusivity, less limited friendship systems, and fewer authoritarian family relationshipsa.More likely than the parochial group to know something about the disease to trust health professionals and to be less dependent on others while sick 14. The decision to seek out a physician is based not just on professional standards of appropriate illness but also on lay norms, and the two may be in conflict15. Suchman’s study suggested:a.Under certain conditions, close and ethnically exclusive social relationships tend KKLLOOKK27
to channel health seeking behavior, at least initially, toward the group rather than professional health care delivery systems 16.Reed Geertsenand associates replicated study in salt lake city17. Concluded people who belong to close and exclusive groups, especially tradition- and authority- oriented families are 18. Geertsen focused on family rather than the ethnic group19. Knowledge about a disease and family authority appear as key intervening variables in a person’s medical orientationa.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 35 pages?