Research findings may be counter intuitive for

Info icon This preview shows pages 7–9. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
findings too radical, and they fear change in the social order. Research findings may be counter-intuitive. For example, a considerable body of research has found that capital punishment does not reduce violent crime and that stringent penalties for drug use do not lower that use. However, most people trust intuition more than research. What is the goal? Too, policy makers may encourage or adopt research that agrees with their opinions. They may also encourage study in an effort to avoid making a decision. While the accumulation of research probably will influence policy makers, it takes considerable time and effort, especially when research findings are counter to popular opinion. Since researchers are rarely wholly objective, it is possible to find researchers affiliated with a variety of political, economic, and social organizations. The thoughtful politician can almost always find a researcher to support a particular position. III. History of the Social Sciences A. Early History Since the social sciences did not emerge in Western Europe until about the 1870s and 1880s, they are quite young both as academic disciplines and especially as sciences. Most of today's social sciences are based upon political economy , which was to be the science of modern (industrialized) society. However, it did poorly in explaining and resolving the problems from urbanization and industrialization. It was not until the 1920s, that the major social science disciplines were professional, rather than amateur, in the U.S. 1. The 1940s through 1960s Social science became popular in Europe after the Second World War, but as three separate disciplines. Economics was to be the science of development and full employment. Political science was to be the science of democracy. Sociology was to be the science of modernization, creating an appropriate culture for the future. Two events in particular stimulated an increased interest in the social sciences. 7
Image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Power, Authority, and Exchange – ISS 225 Intro. Social Science 2. Cold War As the European colonies became independent and the Cold War intensified, the U.S. government gave increased attention to both Communist and developing countries. Before World War II, few American scholars studied counties and cultures outside North America and Europe. There were few area specialists. Now, federal government money was available for Area Studies, which brought together scholars from the humanities and the social sciences to study what had happened, what was happening, and what was likely to happen in various regions of the world. This was a new kind of multi-disciplinary research and teaching. Area studies research tended to be descriptive and soft (unscientific) because of the disciplines, including some from the humanities, represented. Language, literature, history, political science and anthropology were the major disciplines involved. Most research universities added at least one area studies program. Areas where the U.S. envisioned risk, e.g. the Soviet Union and China, received particular attention.
Image of page 8
Image of page 9
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern