Is a universal statement about humanity rather than a

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is a universal statement about humanity, rather than a simple statement dealing with plot or characters in the story. Themes are generally hinted at through different methods: a phrase or quotation that introduces the novel, a recurring element in the book, or an observation made that is reinforced through plot, dialogue, or characters. It must be emphasized that not all works of literature have themes in them. Example : In a story about a man who is diagnosed with cancer and, through medicine and will-power, returns to his former occupation, the theme might be: “Real courage is demonstrated through internal bravery and perseverance.” In a poem about a flower that grows, blooms, and dies, the theme might be: “Youth fades, and death comes to all.”
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181 © Copyright 2005, Prestwick House, Inc. SMALL GROUP LEARNING Small Group Learning is defined as two to five students working together for a common goal. For it to be successful, three basic elements must be present. 1. SOCIAL SKILLS IN GROUP WORK: Most students, unless they are taught the appropriate skills, do not participate as effectively as they might in small group work. Like any other skill, those needed for group work must be identified, practiced, and reinforced. To this end, we have included a Social Skills Behavior Checklist which we will ask you to use to rate your group. At this time, please read the related objectives listed below. Social-Behavioral Objectives 1. Everyone is addressed by his or her first name. 2. Everyone speaks quietly in order not to disturb other groups. 3. No one ever uses put-downs or name calling. 4. Everyone is always physically and mentally part of the group. The following are pro- hibited and may result in the group’s grade being lowered: A. Putting one’s head down on the desk. B. Reading or working on unrelated items. C. Moving about the room or talking to members of other groups. 5. Everyone is encouraged to participate and does participate. 6. Everyone offers praise and encouragement. 7. Everyone recognizes that on some points of opinion two equally valid points of view can be supported. 8. Everyone also recognizes, however, that the worth of an idea (opinion) depends on the strength of the facts that support it. Social-Intellectual Objectives 9. Ideas are discussed aloud. 10. Ideas are summarized. 11. Clarification is asked for and received. 12. Explanations are given until everyone understands. 13. Ideas, not people, are criticized. 14. Difficult ideas are paraphrased. 15. Multiple points of view are examined. 16. Work is organized within available time and available resources. 17. Questions are asked and answered satisfactorily. 18. Ideas are examined, elaborated on, and pulled together. 19. Reasons and rationale are asked for and provided. 20. Conclusions are challenged with new information.
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