It is the product of a multilingual situation in which those who wish to

It is the product of a multilingual situation in

This preview shows page 37 - 43 out of 66 pages.

It is the product of a multilingual situation in which those who wish to communicate must find or improvise a simple language system. Limited functions (esp. trade, lingua franca) No native speakers (nobody’s mother tongue) Contact language involving at least two, often three different language groups (superstratum and substratum languages) Very often, there is an imbalance of power among the languages. The speakers of one language dominate the speakers of the other languages economically and socially. The superstratum language supplies most of vocabulary The substratum language supplies much of the grammar (variable depending on the speaker)
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Expanded Pidgins Pidgins usually have limited life-span; can die out when the interactions that they serve end (e.g., the end of a trade route, slave labour) Pidgins will survive longer if at least two substratum language groups are involved. E.g. Non-European language groups not in frequent contact with each other until arrival of trans-oceanic trade continued to use the Pidgins created. English, French, Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish, Hindi (Haflong Hindi and Andaman Hindustani)
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Expanded Pidgins So the pidgin becomes a link language among the non-Europeans, who sometimes continue to develop and use it after the Europeans have left True in many West African countries and South Pacific islands So it can become an expanded pidgin, like the Nigerian pidgin Genesis, and remain in wide use. Grammar and vocabulary expand as types of interactions become broader and more complex. But still no native speakers.
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Hawaiian Pidgin Labour brought into Hawaiian sugar plantations from Japan, Korea, Phillipines, Puerto Rico. No consistent word order, no prefixes/suffixes, no tense or other temporal markers, no complex clauses etc.)
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Pidgin - Creole Origins Under certain circumstances, expanded pidgins can start to have native speakers. When speakers of the pidgin marry and/or have children, those children grow up with other children having similar language backgrounds. As they grow up and the language is increasingly used for a broad range of activities (education, music, religion), it becomes more complex in terms of grammar, vocabulary, and discourse. The pidgin has now developed into a creole , which is “the mother tongue of a community.” Creoles can become dominant languages of communities and even post- colonial nations: Jamaica Creole, Haitian Creole Creoles often co-exist with the standard dialect of a former colonial European language, which may remain the language of power/government.
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Creoles A Creole is defined as a pidgin that has become the first language of a new generation of speaker s, i.e., creoles arise when pidgins become mother tongues.
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  • Spring '16
  • Ravi Banavar
  • Hamlet, Pidgin, Standard language, pidgins

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