Cardiac catheterization measures pressure and assess

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Cardiac Catheterization: Measures pressure and assess valve and heart function determination of central venous pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure Angiography- Visualize blood flow in coronary arteries (Doppler Studies) assess blood flow in peripheral vessels, and records sounds of blood flow or obstruction
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Blood Tests: Assess serum triglycerides, cholesterol levels, levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, other electrolytes Treatment Measures Dietary Modifications: Decrease total fat intake, weight reduction, and reduce salt intake Regular Exercise Program: Increases high-density lipoprotein, and lowers serum lipid levels, and reduces stress levels Cessation of Smoking: Decreases risk of coronary disease Digoxin: Treatment for hearth failure antidysrhythmic drug for atrial dysrhythmias Antihypertensive Drugs: Used to lower blood pressure Diuretics: Remove excess sodium and/or water and treat high BP and congestive heart failure Cholesterol-lowering Drugs: Reduction of low-density lipoproteins and cholesterol content Coronary Artery Disease Arteriosclerosis: General term for all types of arterial changes Degenerative changes in small arteries and arterioles- loss of elasticity Lumen gradually narrows and may become obstructed thus causing increased BP Atherosclerosis: presence of atheromas in large arteries Plaque consisting of lipids, calcium, and possible clots Related to diet, exercise, and stress Risk factor for Atherosclerosis Non-modifiable : Age, gender, or genetic/ familial factors Modifiable : Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, cigarette smoking, diabetes mellitus, poorly controlled hypertension, and combination of oral contraceptives and smoking Diagnostic Tests: Serum lipid levels Treatment: Weight loss, increase exercise Lower total serum cholesterol and LDL levels by dietary modification and reduce sodium intake Control hypertension, cessation of smoking Anti-lipidemic drugs Surgical intervention (ex: coronary artery bypass graft) Angina Pectoris : Occurs when there is a deficit of oxygen to meet myocardial needs Chest pain occur in different patterns: Classic or exertional angina (ex: grandpa playing baseball after being stationary) Variant angina- Vasospasm occurs at rest
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Unstable angina- Pain at rest Recurrent, intermittent brief episodes of substernal chest pain Triggered by physical or emotional stress Attacks vary in severity and duration but become more frequent and longer as the disease progresses Emergency Treatment for Angina Relieved by rest and administration of coronary vasodilators (ex: nitroglycerin, to reduce systemic resistance, decreasing oxygen demand) Rest, stop activity, sit in upright position Administration of oxygen if necessary Patient known to have angina, repeat nitroglycerin Patients without history of angina need to seek emergency aid Myocardial Infarction Occurs when coronary artery is totally obstructed
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