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12. Be sure to live in a community where you trust your neighbors and feel that you belongChapter 19: Mass MediaIntroduction: Becoming an Informed Consumer:-Popular culture refers to the culture of the people in which the people play an active, creative role in cultural production-Agencyrefers to the ability to take an active role in cultural production-Mass culture refers to culture created for the masses by those with power (particularly the media)-Simulacra are aspects of mass culture that draw on and promote stereotypes and are produced likematerial goods or commodities-Hyperreal, a term developed by Jean Baudrillard, is the idea that certain things are artificial, made-up versions of real life. People relate to the hyperreal as though it is ‘more real’ than the actual things they simulate
Marshall McLuhan:-Marshall McLuhanhas been described as a media “prophet” for his work on technology in society-McLuhan was a technological determinist—someone who believes that a given form of technology will determine how people act and think-The medium is the message:the idea that the medium—whether it be television or radio or print—has a causative effect on the way that human groups think, act, and organize socially C. Wright Mills:-C. Wright Millsin the Power Elite(1956) outlined two main characteristics of media:1.Very few people get to communicate to a great number of people2.The audience has no truly effective way to communicate backThe Propaganda Model of Information Delivery:-Edward S. Herman and Noam Chomskyin Manufacturing Consent: the Political Economy of the Mass Mediaargued that cable news networks hire employees it knows will follow an editorial policy that promotes the organization’s perspective-Herman and Chomsky developed what they call the propaganda modelof media analysis, including the following six main “filters” that contribute to mediaHerman and Chomsky’s Six Filters:1.Increasingly narrow concentration of ownership among media organizations2.Financial dependence of the media on powerful advertisers3.Media obtains reports from large public relations firms rather than developing independent stories4.Special interest groups furnish “experts” to be interviewed or selected by the media5.Known as “flak,” this filter involves the negative reaction to how the media are presenting information by corporate sponsorship, letters to the editor, or lawsuits6.Controlling interests have the power to preserve the status quo and perpetuate dominant ideologies. Counter-narratives are, for the most part, marginalizedEmbedded Journalism:-Embedded journalism involves the hiring of journalists who work for organizations but have signed contracts not to report on sensitive information that could compromise the institution (e.g., US–Iraq war of 2003)Junk Food News:-Neil Postman’sAmusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Businessargues that