Although some houses were larger than others, Indus Civilization cities were remarkable for their apparent, if relative, egalitarianism . All the houses had access to water and drainage facilities. This gives the impression of a society with relatively low wealth concentration, though clear social levelling is seen in personal adornments. Authority and governance
Archaeological records provide no immediate answers for a center of power or for depictions of people in power in Harappan society. But, there are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented. For instance, the extraordinary uniformity of Harappan artifacts as evident in pottery, seals, weights and bricks. These are the major assumptions: There was a single state, given the similarity in artifacts, the evidence for planned settlements, the standardised ratio of brick size, and the establishment of settlements near sources of raw material. There was no single ruler but several: Mohenjo-daro had a separate ruler, Harappa another, and so forth. Harappan society had no rulers, and everybody enjoyed equal status. Technology Further information: Indian mathematics - Prehistory Indus Valley seals, British Museum The people of the Indus Civilization achieved great accuracy in measuring length, mass, and time. They were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. A comparison of available objects indicates large scale variation across the Indus territories. Their smallest division, which is marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal , was approximately 1.704 mm, the smallest division ever recorded on a scale of the Bronze Age . Harappan engineers followed the decimal division of measurement for all practical purposes, including the measurement of mass as revealed by their hexahedron weights.  These chert weights were in a ratio of 5:2:1 with weights of 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 500 units, with each unit weighing approximately 28 grams, similar to the English Imperial ounce or Greek uncia, and smaller objects were weighed in similar ratios with the units of 0.871. However, as in other cultures, actual weights were not uniform throughout the area. The weights and measures later used in Kautilya 's Arthashastra (4th century BCE) are the same as those used in Lothal .  Harappans evolved some new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper , bronze , lead , and tin . The engineering skill of the Harappans was remarkable, especially in building docks. In 2001, archaeologists studying the remains of two men from Mehrgarh , Pakistan , made the discovery that the people of the Indus Valley Civilization, from the early Harappan periods, had knowledge of proto-
dentistry . Later, in April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of human teeth in vivo (i.e., in a living person) was found in Mehrgarh. Eleven drilled molar crowns from nine adults were discovered in a Neolithic graveyard in Mehrgarh that dates from 7,500-9,000 years ago. According to the authors, their discoveries point to a
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- Winter '18
- james smith
- Indus Valley Civilization, Indus River valley