# Questions getting started 1 kinetic energy is the

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completely before using them in the lab. Questions Getting Started 1. Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of the body or of the particles in the system, and potential energy is the stored energy in an object of system. The difference between the two is kinetic energy can be transferred but, potential energy cannot be transferred. 2. The environmental factors that affect kinetic energy and diffusion are pressure, temperature, molecule size, and nature of the material. 3. These factors alter diffusion rates because heat makes the molecules gain energy, causing the molecules to collide more. This makes diffusion happen faster, because large molecules need more energy so they take longer to diffuse. 4. Gradients are important in diffusion and osmosis because without a gradient, there would be no movement from high to low concentrations. 5. The explanation for the fact that most cells are small and have cell membranes with many convolutions is, smaller cells have more surface area. This allows more substances to diffuse in and out of cells, and convolutions on the cell membrane increase the surface area. The increase in surface area also increases the rate of diffusion. 6. If the cell has a higher water potential than the surrounding environment then water will move out of the cell. 7. If you applied saltwater to a plant, then water will be drawn out of the plant’s vacuole in an attempt to try and bring the concentration of the cellular environment to equilibrium with the interior. This causes the plant to shrivel up. Adriann Lausen Demi Dobbin AP Bio # 3 Mrs. Houseman 20 September 2019

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8. A plant cell controls its internal pressure by changing the gradient of glucose concentration to either gain or water or prevent water loss. Procedure 1 1. The cell shape is a cube. 2. The sizes of the cells are 1cm^3, 8cm^3, and 27cm^3. 3. Small intestinal epithelial and root hair cells function in nutrient procurement by the process of osmosis. 4. The increase in pressure helps the diffusion happen 5. The SA:V ratio is why this is, because the ratio helps the cell diffuse things. 6. The plant would shrivel up and die 7. By letting water in and out 8. The surface area of each of our three cells were 30, 40, and 10. 9. The total volume of each of our cells was 7.5, 7.5, and 1.5. 10. If you put each of the boxes into a solution, then the solution would diffuse into the box with a surface area of 40 and a volume of 7.5 the fastest because it has a bigger area for diffusion to take place. The slowest box would be the one with a surface area of 10 and a volume of 1.5. Procedure 2 1. It is important for an IV solution to have salt in it because the salts prevent the gradient slope from being too steep, and the blood cells won’t explode. 2. If you were given pure water in an IV the water would create a steep gradient causing the blood vessels to explode.

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