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No one is allergic upon first exposure, prolonged exposure necessary for immune system to produce antibodies which then can manifest as allergy symptomsAllergic reaction incident with man eating canape (fish)Papain (meat tenderizer) can cause allergic reactionsPeanut allergies can be severe
Boy in MTL summer camp died because knife that was use don peanut butter was used to cut cheese, which he ate & did not have his EpiPen with himEpiPens need to be in immediate reachReactions can be triggered by trace amountsNocebo effects are very rare, but can also be possibleFear of food causes physical reaction to itHypoglycemiaSymptoms: sweating, shaking, palpitations, confusion, lightheadednessDiagnosed by drinking sugar solution & having blood sugar levels monitored. A sudden drop in blood sugar after ½ - 2 hours is indicativeof hypoglycemiaControlled by dietHyperactivity due to sugar consumption is not true (actually does the opposite, calming effect) Sugar ingestion causes insulin release, which enhances the absorption of competing amino acids into the muscle tissue, which leaves more tryptophan (precursor to serotonin) to be absorbed by the brain (tryptophan is not particularly well absorbed into the brain)Protein on the other hand, will make you more alertTyrosine (an amino acid) goes through dopamine norepinephrine to produce epinephrineAKA adrenalineIdiosyncratic reactionsRare reactions that affect pepleBiochemical mechanism not known properlyTartrazineDye used in some beverages & some foodsSome people will react with rashes & headachesNo allergy test will pick it up
Sodium metabisulphitePreservative used in some juices & white winesMonosodium glutamate (MSG)Chinese restaurant syndromeSymptoms of sweating, headaches & chest painGenerally passes in about ½ hour without a problemRarely fatal, but sometimes can even cause asthmaSalsa snifflesSome people get teary eyes & a runny nose when they eat hot peppers Microbe contaminationAccording to the USA Centers for Disease Control, there are ~50 mill. food-related illnesses, 130,000 hospitalizations & ~3000 deaths in the USMicrobes refer to bacteria:Many are good/harmless (we’re always surrounded by them)Some are toxic: salmonella, staphylococcus, campylobacter, perfringens, shigella, listeria, clostridium botulinum & E. coli 0157Microbes refer to viruses:HepatitisMicrobes refer to worms:Trichinella2 ways bacteria can cause problemsBacterial infection
Bacterium multiplies & body becomes overrun by the bacteriaBacterial intoxicationReaction to poisons produced by bacteriaSalmonellaCauses nausea & vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever & headache(symptoms of gastroenteritis: inflammation of stomach & intestine)Starts ~ 6 hours – 2 days after consumption of contaminated food & lasts 1-2 daysNamed after veterinarian Daniel Salmon who first decribed this bacteriaCAN leave an individual with reactive arthritis & lead to heart problems, lactose intolerance, chronic diarrhea, & trigger food allergiesChicken most common source