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There was no greeting ceremony we ran with our heads

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there was no greeting ceremony... we ran with our headsdown, we basically were told to run to our cars... there wassupposed to be some kind of a greeting ceremony at theairport, we basically were told to run to our cars, that is whathappened.”Memory errors do happen“So I made a mistake. That happens. It proves I'm human,which, you know, for some people, is a revelation.”
Types of Eyewitness Memory• _____recall memory___________: Reporting details of previously witnessedevent/personFree narrative/open-ended questionsDirect questions• _____recognition memory _______: Reporting whether what is currently beingviewed/heard is the same as the previously witnessed person/event ofinterest (ex police lineup)Eyewitness Research Methods• Archival data• Naturalistic environments• Laboratory stimulationsStaged eventMost commonThe Misinformation Effect• Occurs when a witness is provided with inaccurate information about an event after it is witnessed andincorporates the ‘misinformation’ in their later recallLoftus & Palmer (1974)• Watched video of car accident• Asked “How fast were the cars going when they “smashed/collided/bumped/hit/contacted” eachother?Eliciting Information: Misleading-describes a range of techniques which enable the teacher to get learners to provide info rather thangiving it to them. Questioning assists in self-discovery. Which makes info more memorable.Loftus et al. (1979)• 30 slides of car accident• Saw either stop or yield sign• Did another car pass the red Datsun while it was stopped at theyield/stop sign?• Which slide did you see?
• Results• 75% selected the sign that they did not seeThe two types of memory retrieval are: Recall and recognitionExplaining the Misinformation Effect• Misinformation acceptance hypothesis• Source misattribution hypothesis• Memory impairment hypothesisRecall Procedures Unit 5 – Section 2Standard Police Interview• Open-ended followed by direct questions• But what often happens…Interrupting an eyewitness’recallUse of very short, specific questionsInappropriate sequencing of questionsLeading questionsFacilitating Eyewitness Recall• Methods used in the investigative process to aid eyewitness recall include:HypnosisCognitive InterviewEnhanced Cognitive InterviewEliciting Information: HypnosisRecall more accurate and inaccurate detailsMore suggestibleHigh degree of confidenceR vs. Trochym (2007) - Total ban on admissibility of evidence obtainedunder hypnosisCognitive Interview• Based on memory retrieval techniques:Reinstatement the contextReport everythingRecall event in different ordersChange perspectives
Enhanced Cognitive InterviewRapport buildingSupportive interview behaviourTransfer of controlFocused retrievalWitness compatible testingCognitive Interview Research• Both types of cognitive interviews better than standard30% increase in accurate informationNo increase in inaccurate information• No differences between types of cognitive interviews• Reluctance by police to use

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Term
Fall
Professor
CraigBennell
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