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5 chemical score this is based on the chemical

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5.)Chemical score- This is based on the chemical analysis of the protein for the composition of essentialamino acidswhich is then compared with a reference protein (usually egg protein). The chemical score isdefined as the ratio between the quantity of the most limiting essential amino acid in the test protein to thequantity of the same amino acid in the egg protein, expressed as percentage.mg of the limiting amino acid / g test protein×100mg of the same amino acid / g egg proteinThe chemical score of egg protein, for any one of the essential amino acids, is taken as 100 and the rest ofthe proteins are compared.Chemical scores of foods are as follows : eggs100; meat70; milk cow65;liver66; fish60; rice60; soybean57; Bengal gram44; groundnuts44; wheat42; sesame40;and gelatin0.
CHAPTER 11. ANALYSIS OF FAT AND WATER SOLUBLE VITAMINSVitamin AnalysisDefinition and Importance;Vitamins are defined as relatively low-molecular weight compounds whichhumans, and for that matter, any living organism that depends on organic matter as a source of nutrients,require small quantities for normal metabolism. With few exceptions, humans cannot synthesize mostvitamins and therefore need to obtain them from food and supplements. Insufficient levels of vitamins resultin deficiency diseases[e.g., scurvy and pellagra, which are due to the lack of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) andniacin, respectively].Importance of Analysis;Vitamin analysis of food and other biological samples has played a critical role indetermining animal and human nutritional requirements. Furthermore, accurate food compositioninformation is required to determine dietary intakes to assess diet adequacy and improve human nutritionworldwide.Vitamin Units;When vitamins are expressed in units of mg or μg per tablet or food serving, it is very easyto grasp how much is present. Vitamins can also be expressed as international units (IU), United StatesPharmacopeia (USP) units, and% Daily Value (DV). To many, these definitions are unclear.Vitamin assays can be classified as follows:1. Bioassays involving humans and animals.2. Microbiological assays making use of protozoan organisms, bacteria, and yeast.3. Physicochemical assays that include spectrophotometric, fluorometric, chromatographic, enzymatic,immunological, and radiometric methods.Extraction MethodsVitamin assays in most instances involve the extraction of a vitamin from its biological matrix prior toanalysis. This generally includes one or several of the following treatments: heat, acid, alkali, solvents, andenzymes.Typical extraction procedures are as follows:• Ascorbic acid: Cold extraction with metaphosphoricacid/acetic acid.• Vitamin B1 and B2: Boiling or autoclaving in acid plus enzyme treatment.

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Term
Spring
Professor
Landry

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