Bodily signs and symptoms as being an indication of a

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bodily signs and symptoms as being an indication of a serious illness - Can be linked with anxiety and mood disorders - Not an ‘all or none’ category - Is mostly learned - Present in hypochondriasis and illness phobias - Hypochondriasis - Fear of having an illness - Illness phobia - Fear of contracting an illness - Illness attitudes scale is used to assess health anxiety (4 factors) - Worry about illness and pain - Disease conviction - Health habits - Symptom interference with lifestyle - Cognitive factors are important to the understanding of health anxiety - 4 contributing factors - Critical precipitating incident - Previous experience of an illness and related medical factors - Inflexible or negative cognitive assumptions (belief that unexplained body changes are sign of serious illness) - Severity of anxiety (function of 2 factors that will increase anxiety or 2 factors that will decrease it) - Increase - Perceived likelihood or probability of illness - Perceived cost, awfulness and burden of illness - Decrease - Perceived ability to cope - Perceived presence of rescue factors (effectiveness of medical help) 7.2 Conversion Disorder - Conversion disorder - Physiologically normal people experiencing sensory or motor symptoms (eg. loss of vision) - Suggesting an illness related to neurological damage - body organs and nervous system are found to be fine - May experience paralysis of arms or legs, seizures and coordination disturbances, sensations of prickling or tingling, insensitivity to pain - Anaesthesias - Loss or impairment of sensations - Aphonia - Loss of voice and all but whispered speech - Anosmia
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- Loss or impairment of the sense of smell - In DSM-5 conversion disorder is also called ‘functional neurological symptom disorder’ - Stress plays a role in the development of conversion disorder - Symptoms usually develop in adolescence or early adulthood - after undergoing a stressful life event - may end abruptly - but is likely to return either in its original form or with a symptom of a different nature and/or site - Frequently comorbid with depression, substance abuse, anxiety and dissociative disorders and with personality disorders - People with conversion disorder report a history of physical or sexual abuse - Somatization Disorder - Had been dropped from DSM-5 - Characterized by recurrent, multiple somatic complaints with no apparent physical cause - To meet previous diagnostic criteria the individual needed - 4 pain symptoms in diff locations - 2 gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, nausea) - 1 sexual symptom other than pain (erectile dysfunction) - 1 pseudoneurological symptom (those of conversion disorder) - Usually causes impairment 7.3 Etiology of Somatoform Disorders - People with this form of disorder are more sensitive to physical sensations and will overattend to them or interpret them catastrophically - People may also have a memory bias for information that connotes physical threat - Somatoform clients had greater interferences for physical threat words - Behavioural view - Various aches, discomforts and dysfunctions are the manifestation of unrealistic
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  • Spring '14
  • KathyFoxa
  • Schizophrenia, Borderline personality disorder, Antisocial personality disorder, Avoidant personality disorder

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