7.The research on gender stereotypes shows that people frequently make schema-consistent inferences in explicit memory (e.g., a recognition test) and in implicit memory, for instance, with the ERP technique and the IAT task. Cross-cultural research shows that countries with the highest scores on the IAT are also the countries where boys earn higher scores than girls on a test that measures performance in science and mathematics.Chapter 9Overview of Psycholinguistics1.Psycholinguistics is the study of the cognitive processes involved in language production, language comprehension, and naturalistic communication; it is a large and interdisciplinary field.2.Some of the central concepts in psycholinguistics are the phoneme, the morpheme, morphology, syntax, grammar, semantics, semantic memory, and pragmatics.3.Many cognitive processes operate simultaneously and in tight-knit coordination during language use; visual and auditory processes, attention, working memory, long-term memory, and mental imagery are all necessary components of language processing.4.According to Noam Chomsky, (a) language skills are innate in humans, (b) language is separate from other cognitive processes, and (c) the deep structure of a sentence captures its core meaning.5.Many current psychologists emphasize the meaning of language, rather than linguistic structure. For example, the cognitive-functional
approach to language emphasizes that we design our language so thatlisteners will pay attention to the information we want to emphasize.On-line Sentence Comprehension1.Sentences are more difficult to understand if they contain negatives or use the passive voice.2.Syntactic complexity also influences the ease with which someone can understand a sentence. Sentences with more complex grammar are more difficult to understand.3.The effects of syntactic complexity may arise as a result of increased memory demands. They may also arise, however, as a result of the fact that grammatically complex sentences are less frequent in language—thus, individuals have less experience with them.4.Lexical ambiguity arises when one word has multiple possible meanings; in isolation, these words sometimes take longer to process. Sentence context, however, can reduce this effect.5.Many times, an unfolding sentence may have multiple possible grammatical interpretations; in other words, they are syntactically ambiguous.6.Context often provides readers and listeners with the ability to arrive atthe correct interpretation of an ambiguity. Context does not only have to be linguistic in nature. Instead, even properties of the visual world can influence how one interprets sentences.Brain and Language1.Neurolinguistic research on adults with aphasia suggests that damage in Broca's area usually leads to difficulty in producing language, whereas damage in Wernicke's area usually leads to difficulty in understanding language; however, the distinction is not clear-cut.