Using a dictionary of common passwords and user info to reject easily guessable passwords if a user attempts to set them as their password (useful against dictionary attacks). Against a Rainbow table the only defense is to use a higher level of encryption (not MD5 or SHA1).17.What is the difference between a denial-of-service attack and a distributed denial-of-service attack? Which is more dangerous? Why?Denial-of-service and distributed denial-of-service attacks are both when an attacker sends multitudes of information, connection, or action requests to a system thereby overwhelming thesystem so it can’t fulfill legitimate requests. This can crash the system or simply disable legitimate users from using it. The difference is that a distributed denial-of-service attack comes from multiple locations at once, usually from machines that have been taken over by the attacker and are now bots. Simple denial-of-service attacks come from a single location. Distributed denial-of-service attacks are more dangerous because many more requests can be sent and cutting off one location does not stop the attack.
Elizabeth FauxCIT-181-Z04N: Principles of Information SecurityChapter 2 Review Questions2/9/202018.For a sniffer attack to succeed, what must the attacker do? How can an attacker gain access to a network to use the sniffer system?A successful sniffer attack requires the attacker to gain access to the targeted network. This can be done through social engineered Phishing attacks, cracking network security protocols, or gaining direct access to a network enabled device. 19.What methods does a social engineering hacker use to gain information about a user’s login ID and password? How would this method differ if it targeted an administrator’s assistant versus a data-entry clerk?A social engineering hacker might use phishing or pretexting to gain information about a user’s login ID and password. Phishing would use the sending of seemingly legitimate communications that have links to redirect a user to a 3rdparty site which collects their login information. Pretexting is usually done over the phone and has the hacker posing as someone in a position of authority asking for the information as a verification or in an official capacity. The ways an administrator’s assistant and a data clerk would be targeted are similar. However, the admin assistant may be a stepping stone to get information on their boss. They will probably be more knowledgeable about the inner workings of a company and the players at the top level and may need more specific information, such as passwords and security clearances. 20.What is a buffer overflow, and how is it used against a Web server?Buffer overflow is when more information is sent to the buffer memory than it designed or is able to hold. How a system handles this occurrence depends on how it is designed. It could cause the server to crash. Another possibility, which occurred with Internet Explorer 4.0, is that the data that is beyond what the buffer can hold becomes executable code, thereby completely compromising a system. This is how denial-of-service attacks work.