Peddlers a decidedly marginalized group respond less

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peddlers, a decidedly marginalized group, respond less compliantly to the demands of its own officers than to a city officer in public uniform. Actual arrests of these peddlers are rare. What matters is that the threat of arrest and public prosecution embodied in the city police uniform convinces peddlers to move away from the property. Because the Department is interested in street peddling not as an illegal activity but as a unsightly one (detracting from the Center's image as a clean, orderly, and safe destination), the off-duty city police hired by the Department simply disperse peddlers they find. The peddlers who solicit the business of tourists, shoppers, and office workers walking through the outdoor plaza display their goods while nervously surveying their surroundings. When an off- duty cop sees and approaches a peddler, he gathers up his belongings and walks off the plaza grounds. The unquestioning compliance with public police authority is useful on many occasions. On another evening, control center operators noticed from their surveillance monitors a crowd gathering around a street performer standing on the (private) plaza. A supervisor approached that day's off-duty cop, who, at the end of his shift, was waiting in the control center to [*83] complete his paperwork. Would the officer mind taking care of something, and would he be leaving the plaza in uniform? The supervisor pointed out the performer, visible on the monitors, to the officer, who agreed to the task. On his way home, the uniformed cop asked the performer to leave, thereby dispersing the crowd. 3. Relations with the Public Police The Department belongs to the formal, city-wide partnership established in 1986 by the public police. Its official purpose is to foster cooperation between the public department and the hundreds of private policing operations in the city. In practice, cooperation is one, but not the only, kind of relationship the Department maintains with the public police. a. The Old Boy Network The term "old boy network," conveys in shorthand form the social ties among members of a given profession, such as politicians, judges, or as here, the police. n164 Among former public police, these informal connections provide access to information and privileges that the general public would find difficult to obtain. Clients of private police know that former public police may possess "dual allegiances" to their former agency and to their private employer. n165 In public professions, these informal ties pose potential troubling ethical dilemmas, for they suggest that despite the ostensible principles of equality and openness with which institutions like policing are conducted, some people may receive more favorable treatment than others. To take best advantage of such connections, the Protection Department consistently hires former highly-ranked officers from the city's public police department. Directors N.K. and S.R., the two people who held the director's position during the time of my study, n166 bore fifty- five years of collective public

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